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Midterm 1 Lecture Notes P1.pdf

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McGill University
PSYC 333
Jennifer Bartz

PSYC333 Lecture 1 - Jan. 10 Personality Psychology: • Understanding basic human nature • i.e., Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - basic needs such as eating, warmth, etc. being at the bottom of hierarchy and those of achievement, love, etc. being at the top of the hierarchy • Understanding the individual differences The big five ‘personality’ traits: • • Openness • Consciousness • Agreeableness • Extraversion • Neuroticism • Traits should predict behaviour across situations and over time • Example: Sally is high in consciousness, we know she should be a good and reliable friend and studies hard for her exams Experimental Social Psychology (1940-1980): • The Power of the Situation (to override individual differences) • Asch’s ‘Conformity Research’ Zimbardo’s ‘Stanford Prison Experiment’ • • Darley & Latané’s ‘Bystander Intervention’ • Powerful situations can override these individual differences; for example, helping behaviour, authoritarian/abusive behaviour Person X Situation: • Kurt Lewin was father of social psychology • Kurt Lewin: (B)ehaviour = (f)unction [(P)erson/(E)nvironment] • Importance of person was known particularly the importance of a person’s subjective understanding of the environment can influence the behaviour • Change in cognitive science changed the understanding and shifted the view off the person • Ethical issues about creating (powerful) situations • “Crisis” in Personality Psychology - 1960s number of studies showed that traits produced low or non-existence correlation with behaviour • How people construe the social situation and how people perceive social situation can differ and to predict behaviour, we need a better understanding of it • Understanding person situation action interaction is that they can produce impactful effects on behaviour Case #1: • Child athletes becoming professions Children born in the oldest month are three times more likely to become professionals than • those born in youngest month (regardless of sport cycle!) • Why is this? • Because they are older and more mature, they are stronger and more mature so they stand out • Coaches more likely to notice them and support them • Little differences become big differences! Case #2: Newlywed wives (growing) dissatisfaction: • • Conducted study on married couple (right after they married) for a couple of years • Wives initially had high marital satisfaction, but after three years, was very dissatisfied with the relationship • Why? • Wives negative marital satisfaction -> Husbands negative behaviour • Husbands negative behaviour -> Wives negative martial satisfaction • Husbands negative behaviour -> Wives negative behaviour • Wives negative behaviour -> Wives negative marital satisfaction • Little differences become big differences! Person X Situation Interactions: • Understanding person and situation interactions and how they occur Three ways people interact with situations: • • Same environment/situation can elicit different responses in different people • People select themselves into different situations • Expose themselves to different experiences and influences, not random • People create social situations Overview of the Course: • The Person: Who am I? • • What makes me the person I am? • How does that influence: • What I do? • How I see the world? • How I relate to others? • How I feel about myself? PSYC333 Lecture 2 - Jan. 12 Multiple Selves: • “A man has as many social selves as there are individuals who recognize him and carry an image of him in their mind.” - James, 1892 Which Self Am I Now?: • Phenomenal self (Jones & Gerard, 1967) Small portion of (self) knowledge that is the current focus of awareness • • Spontaneous self concept (McGuire, 1984) Distinctiveness Theory: • A person notices her or his distinctive traits and personal characteristics more readily because of their greater informational richness and value for discriminating self from others: • Not very useful to describe yourself as a McGill student in a class of McGill students Example #1: Atypical attributes: • 6th grade students atypical in age, hair colour, eye colour, weight and birthplace mention these attributes more than those with typical characteristics Example #2: Ethnicity: • People are more likely to mention ethnicity and things that separate themselves from others Example #3: Gender: • Gender: function of household sex composition • 26% of minority sex in classroom mention gender, 11% of majority Example #4: (Cota & Dion, 1986) • Create ad hoc 3 person groups in the lab: • All males • All females • 1 male, 2 female (distinctiveness condition) • 1 female; 2 males (distinctiveness condition) • Who describes themselves by gender? • 34% (distinctiveness condition) vs. 16% (non-distinctive condition) • Implications: Different situations can activate different schemas and this produces different versions of the • self • People can be manipulated by having them comb through their stock of self views in a biased manner • Sheds light on how the self concept can be changed Dynamic Self-Concept: (Markus & Wurf, 1987) • Self is a collection of representations/schemas about the self “Working self-concept” is that set of representations (body of knowledge) that is accessible at any • one moment • Core self conceptions are imbedded in a context of more tentative self conceptions that are tied to prevailing circumstances • Some of the ideas about the self is more central to the self; others more peripheral, but only a small subset of that is in the current focus of awareness Accessibility: Activation potential of available knowledge (Higgins, 1996) • • Accessibility is a function of: • Frequency of action - highly interconnected; more accessible to the self • Activating one node will more likely activate another node • Recency of activation - residual activation • Frequency and recency of activation are going to influence the accessibility of self knowledge Recap: • We have multiple selves • When asked who we are, we come up with different descriptions of ourselves depending on the situation, context, and who we are talking to • We however, have one central (dynamic) self that consists of all the different knowledge we have about the self • Working self cannot have all the knowledge accessible all the time, so we have a subset of knowledge accessible at any given situation; this is known as the ‘working-self concept’ Contextual Activation I: (Fazio, Effrein, Falender, 1981, JPSP) • Manipulation: • Extraverted: “what would you do if you wanted to liven things up at a party?” • Introverted: “what things do you dislike about loud parties?” • Control: neither extraverted or introverted • Those in the extraverted condition: • Described themselves as more extraverted • Acted more extraverted in a subsequent situation! • Essentially, priming affects the self Barnum Effect: • Personality statement about an individual that is true of practically everyone • Willingness to accept the validity of such overly inclusive statements • Does the personality assessment tell us anything distinctive about the person? Contextual Activation II: (Bargh, Chen & Barrows, 1996) • Experimenter helping another participant (confederate) with the task • How long does participant wait to interrupt experimenter and confederate? • Ps in rude prime condition (vs. neutral prime condition) • Time to interrupt: rude 3 mins (!) faster Interrupt vs. not: 65% (rude) vs. 15% (polite) • • Ps completely unaware of prime Study 2: Prime elderly stereotype: • In addition to contextual prime, they primed Ps with words reflecting elderly stereotype • Ps then had to walk down a hallway to an elevator; experimenter then timed Ps time to walk down • Ps who were primed with elderly stereotype took longer to walk to elevator Living Large: (Duguid & Goncalo, 2012) Priming power • • Increases estimates of a pole’s height relative to oneself (Study 1) • Overestimated their height relative to the pole • Leads one to create a taller avatar to represent the self in a second-life game (Study 2) • Those primed felt they were taller because of the avatar • Being assigned to a powerful role (manager vs. employee) in business simulation • Increases estimates of one’s own height (Study 3) Implications: • Different situations can activate different schemas and this produces different version of the self • People can be manipulated by having them comb through their stock of self views in a biased manner • Sheds light on how the self concept can be changed (over time) • Is there one true core self? • There is a core self that is chronically accessible Self Schemata: (Markus, 1977) • “Cognitive generalizations about the self, derived from past experience, that organize and guide the processing of self-related information contained in the individual’s social experiences.” • We use schemas to help process information and to help facilitate social interaction • We have schemas about the self; core self based on prior experiences and challenges • Our self schemas helps us think about how we might act in various situations • What traits describe you and are important to you? • Independent vs. dependent • Individualist vs. conformist • Leader vs. follower • Had participants return to the lab 3-4 weeks later, showed them chart and asked them whether the traits were indicative of themselves; timed response time • RTs reflect behavioural evidence that schematic traits are more cognitively accessible • Schematics (vs. aschematics): Found it easier to list behaviours from their life that are schema consistent • • Were more certain about the likelihood that they would engage in hypothetical schema- consistent behaviours • People who were schema consistent, they were more resistant to schema incongruent feedback (bogus personality test does not influence accuracy or RTs) • Implications for cross-situational consistency! Is There A Core Self?: • Chronic vs. contextual activation • Structure of self-representations; draw a map: • What is central? • What is peripheral? • What are the implications of different configurations for: How you think, feel and behaviour • • How you relate to others • Is there a general taxonomy for self representations? PSYC333 Lecture 3 - Jan. 17 The Organization of Self Knowledge Review: • We have ‘multiple selves’; friend-self, family-self, work-self, etc. • Self is a collection of representations/schemas about the self • “Working self-concept” is that set of representations that is accessible at any one moment • Core self conceptions are imbedded in a context of more tentative self conceptions that are tied to prevailing circumstances • The working self-concept • How does self-knowledge get activated? • Frequency of activation • Recency of activation Contextual activation • • Chronic accessibility - Similar in the sense of how frequent the core self is activated Content of Self Representations: • Attributes • Roles • Relationships • Activities • Goals Structure of Self Knowledge: • Integration • Self concept clarity (Campbell et al 1996) • Extent to which self beliefs are: • Clearly and confidently defined • Internally consistent and stable • There is some form of ‘core’ self; reflected by self concept clarity where people could differ on in a systematic way • Self-discrepancies (Higgins) • Extent to which one’s actual self if consistent with “ideal” and “ought” standards of one’s own and of others (i.e. mother, father, etc.) • Main point is understanding integration of other selfs • Clarity and lack of discrepancy generally associated with better outcomes • Differentiation • Knowledge activation depends on: • Context Associated thoughts - certain ideas about the self are linked to other ideas of the self • • Relation to currently activated self-concepts, and their frequency and recency of activation • Self representations differ: • Number of self-aspects • Degree of differentiation Self-complexity: • Degree of differentiation depends on number of self aspects and their differentiation from each other • High self complexity = lots of roles, little overlap • Low self complexity = few roles, more overlap • “Spillover” • If something bad happens in one domain, it’s l
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