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Psychology of Language after midterm 2 part 1.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 340
Debra Ann Titone

Production vs Comprehension Production side of Language: Thought into speech signal Uniqueness in production-> Recognising a word-automatic but more effortful in production Comprehension- starting point= stimulus in the environment (sound, written word) Production-starting point=thought or intent (hard to control/observe) Hard to study so…. 1. Give people things to say  Picture naming: tiger activates concept of tiger in the person’s mind (not linguistics-let them activate the concept (linguistic is up to them) and they produce the word)  Picture word interference: sound of the word lion-> look at how it influences their ability to name the picture (tiger), lion semantically related to tiger so you look at whether it helps or hinders, use other stimuli to get at the processes that are underlying the production of picture naming 2. Study when things go wrong  Speech errors (one of the first ways)  Spontaneous  Lab  Disruptions (hesitations and pauses)-reveal interesting patterns Stages of Production 1. Conceptualize-The Message  Preverbal= the goal/intent  Macro Planning stage: general info. From the environment  Micro Planning stage: basic outline 2. Formulation-The Plan  Sentences: syntactic planning  Meaning to sounds: lexicalization (getting the sounds)  What are the stages of planning? 3. Execution-The action Speech Errors -Slip of the tongue (infrequent but do happen) Examples: Us Vice President Dan Quayle “The president is going to lead us out of this recovery (probably meant to say recession)->word substitution, related semantically, recovery=antonym, related phonologically Roommate and her singing along Big Bang Theory “Math, Science, Ristory, unravelling the mystery…wait….ristory?(suppose to be History)->phoneme anticipation, thinking ahead  Types 1. Shifts-Misplace somewhere else e.g: She’ll be ready in case she decide to hits it. 2. Anticipations-Misplace something in the future e.g: Bake my bike. 3. Perseverations-Misuse something from the past e.g: God rest re merry gentlemen. 4. Additions-Add something in e.g: I didn’t explain this clarefully enough. 5. Deletions-Subtract something out e.g: The chimney cath__ fire. (suffix deletion) 6. Exchanges-Mix letters, Mix word placement, Mix Morphemes e.g: Do you reel feally bad? Guess whose mind came to name? I randomed some samply. 7. Substitutions-word substitutions e.g: At low speeds it’s too light (suppose to be heavy) 8. Blends e.g: That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled at the same time so blended it) I miss you a very much.  Patterns  One type of utterance (one level per utterance/error) e.g: Guess whose mind came to name? ->Words Do you reel feally bad -> Phonemes  Elements that exchange are similar e.g: At the bottom of the scary pale. (play scale)->Consonants/beginnings The arg of the f[juwt]. (art of the fugue)->Consonnts/endings The fash and tickle. (fish and tackle)-> Vowels This spring has a seat in it.->Nouns  Word substitutions-similar e.g: I really like (hate) to get up in the morning. Can tell us…. Stages of processing Order that the stages of processing occur  Garret-speech analysis theory of sentence production by looking at speech errors Syntactic Planning 2 general things need to happen: roles (subject, verb, action, object), order •Morpheme exchanges: Ex.“I randomed some samply.” –Stems (free or root morphemes [stand alone, mean something on their own]) –Affixes (bound morphemes [need to be attached to something]) •Morpheme stranding “A weekend for maniacs.” (“A maniac for weekends.”(weekend moves independently from the s) stems and affixes? •Accommodation “A weekend for maniac/s/.” (“A maniac for weekend/z/.”[but pronounced like an s the affixe adapts to its wrong environment/its stem]) Stems processed before affixes? (sound of stem is planned first and then you get the sound of your affixes) Garret 2 general sense of words that behaved differently and do not exchange with one another -Content -Function Model: Content vs Structure (planned in separate stages in processing) •A weekend for maniacs. Content words: words that provide meaning Nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs, free morphemes (stems) Function words: words that provide syntactic structure (like the s) Articles, determiners, conjunctions, bound morphemes (affixes) Content and function words behave differently (don`t exchange with one another) “Maniac a for weekends” does not occur •(Proposed) Garrett’s Model: two discrete, serial levels of planning 1st.Functional level (content) 2nd.Positional level (structure) Terms: Conceptualize: message, idea Functional lvl: content (pull out words and assign roles-no order specified) Positonal lvl: specify order (syntactic frame –function words part of the frame) Sound lvl: exchanging of the stems Articulation: Specify sound Garret: Sentence Production  Message level: I want to say something about dogs chasing cats  Functional level: Subject (Dog concept), Verb (Chase concept), Object (Cat concept), Number of  Subjects=many, Number of Objects=many  Syntactic Frame : Noun1 [+plural], Verb, Noun2 [+plural]  Content word sounds: /dog/ /chase/ /cat/  Positional level: /Dog/ + [s] /chase/ /cat/ + [s]  Function word sounds: /Dogs/ /chase/ /cats/  Articulation: “Dogs chase cats.” Structural Priming: Reuse sentence structures that we have used before or have heard before Netherlands study (merchants and store owners) and looked at the responses they got e.g: at what time did your store open? Answer: 5 o’clock Had prime sentences and then they were shown pictures and had to describe it. Abstract structure of the sentence can be primed independently from the meaning Particular words that you use for the priming sentences does not influence structural priming just the structure (e.g cheerleader sentence-does prime the secretary was baking a cake for her boss. Prime not only related to surface form or look of sentence the worker was hit by the bulldozer primes the plane was altered by the control tower. If you switch hit with digging in the bulldozer sentence it does not prime that structure –underlying structure matters here.  Garret’s proposal is that they are completely different stages Evidence say that’s not true-> Content Interacts with Structure How semantic factors influence sentence structure… •Prototypical/common items first (how common something would be) Gave children questions and read the errands
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