Production vs Comprehension
Production side of Language: Thought into speech signal
Uniqueness in production-> Recognising a word-automatic but more effortful in production
Comprehension- starting point= stimulus in the environment (sound, written word)
Production-starting point=thought or intent (hard to control/observe)
Hard to study so….
1. Give people things to say
Picture naming: tiger activates concept of tiger in the person’s mind (not linguistics-let
them activate the concept (linguistic is up to them) and they produce the word)
Picture word interference: sound of the word lion-> look at how it influences their
ability to name the picture (tiger), lion semantically related to tiger so you look at
whether it helps or hinders, use other stimuli to get at the processes that are underlying
the production of picture naming
2. Study when things go wrong
Speech errors (one of the first ways)
Disruptions (hesitations and pauses)-reveal interesting patterns
Stages of Production
1. Conceptualize-The Message
Preverbal= the goal/intent
Macro Planning stage: general info. From the environment
Micro Planning stage: basic outline
2. Formulation-The Plan
Sentences: syntactic planning
Meaning to sounds: lexicalization (getting the sounds)
What are the stages of planning?
3. Execution-The action
Speech Errors -Slip of the tongue (infrequent but do happen)
Us Vice President Dan Quayle “The president is going to lead us out of this recovery (probably meant to
say recession)->word substitution, related semantically, recovery=antonym, related phonologically Roommate and her singing along Big Bang Theory “Math, Science, Ristory, unravelling the
mystery…wait….ristory?(suppose to be History)->phoneme anticipation, thinking ahead
1. Shifts-Misplace somewhere else
e.g: She’ll be ready in case she decide to hits it.
2. Anticipations-Misplace something in the future
e.g: Bake my bike.
3. Perseverations-Misuse something from the past
e.g: God rest re merry gentlemen.
4. Additions-Add something in
e.g: I didn’t explain this clarefully enough.
5. Deletions-Subtract something out
e.g: The chimney cath__ fire. (suffix deletion)
6. Exchanges-Mix letters, Mix word placement, Mix Morphemes
e.g: Do you reel feally bad?
Guess whose mind came to name?
I randomed some samply.
7. Substitutions-word substitutions
e.g: At low speeds it’s too light (suppose to be heavy)
e.g: That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled at the same time so blended it)
I miss you a very much.
One type of utterance (one level per utterance/error)
e.g: Guess whose mind came to name? ->Words
Do you reel feally bad -> Phonemes
Elements that exchange are similar
e.g: At the bottom of the scary pale. (play scale)->Consonants/beginnings
The arg of the f[juwt]. (art of the fugue)->Consonnts/endings
The fash and tickle. (fish and tackle)-> Vowels
This spring has a seat in it.->Nouns
e.g: I really like (hate) to get up in the morning. Can tell us….
Stages of processing
Order that the stages of processing occur
Garret-speech analysis theory of sentence production by looking at speech errors
2 general things need to happen: roles (subject, verb, action, object), order
Ex.“I randomed some samply.”
–Stems (free or root morphemes [stand alone, mean something on their own])
–Affixes (bound morphemes [need to be attached to something])
“A weekend for maniacs.” (“A maniac for weekends.”(weekend moves independently from the
stems and affixes?
“A weekend for maniac/s/.” (“A maniac for weekend/z/.”[but pronounced like an s the affixe
adapts to its wrong environment/its stem])
Stems processed before affixes? (sound of stem is planned first and then you get the sound of
2 general sense of words that behaved differently and do not exchange with one another
Model: Content vs Structure (planned in separate stages in processing)
•A weekend for maniacs.
Content words: words that provide meaning
Nouns, verbs, adjective, adverbs, free morphemes (stems)
Function words: words that provide syntactic structure (like the s)
Articles, determiners, conjunctions, bound morphemes (affixes)
Content and function words behave differently (don`t exchange with one another)
“Maniac a for weekends” does not occur
•(Proposed) Garrett’s Model: two discrete, serial levels of planning
1st.Functional level (content) 2nd.Positional level (structure)
Conceptualize: message, idea
Functional lvl: content (pull out words and assign roles-no order specified)
Positonal lvl: specify order (syntactic frame –function words part of the frame)
Sound lvl: exchanging of the stems
Articulation: Specify sound
Garret: Sentence Production
Message level: I want to say something about dogs chasing cats
Functional level: Subject (Dog concept), Verb (Chase concept), Object (Cat concept),
Subjects=many, Number of Objects=many
Syntactic Frame : Noun1 [+plural], Verb, Noun2 [+plural] Content word sounds: /dog/ /chase/ /cat/
Positional level: /Dog/ + [s] /chase/ /cat/ + [s]
Function word sounds: /Dogs/ /chase/ /cats/
Articulation: “Dogs chase cats.”
Structural Priming: Reuse sentence structures that we have used before or have heard before
Netherlands study (merchants and store owners) and looked at the responses they got
e.g: at what time did your store open? Answer: 5 o’clock
Had prime sentences and then they were shown pictures and had to describe it.
Abstract structure of the sentence can be primed independently from the meaning
Particular words that you use for the priming sentences does not influence structural priming just the
structure (e.g cheerleader sentence-does prime the secretary was baking a cake for her boss. Prime not
only related to surface form or look of sentence the worker was hit by the bulldozer primes the plane
was altered by the control tower. If you switch hit with digging in the bulldozer sentence it does not
prime that structure –underlying structure matters here.
Garret’s proposal is that they are completely different stages
Evidence say that’s not true->
Content Interacts with Structure
How semantic factors influence sentence structure…
•Prototypical/common items first (how common something would be) Gave children questions and read the errands