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McGill University
PSYC 341
Richard Koestner

st RD10- 1 half Chapter 7: Alternative Educational Programs for Programs for English Learners- by Leary and Genesee  Currently many alternative school programs in California for educating English learners (ELs) from English-only programs vs programs teaching with 2 languages  1. Transitional bilingual  2. Developmental bilingual  3. Two-way immersion  Rationale and Advantages of Dual-Language Education  GLOBALIZATION  Evident in many activities: economic and business, communications, travel, culture, and immigration  1 challenge: how to best prepare current USA schools for life in global village • Need linguistic and cultural competence to take advantage of opportunities of globalization  English + another language= competitive edge in global marketplace  Programs that offer ways to acquire English and other languages/cultures will be beneficial  NEUROCOGNITIVE ADVANTAGE  Research has found that advanced levels of bilingual competence are associated with several cognitive advantages • Solving problems with competing information • Attention, inhibition, monitoring and switching focus of attention advantages ♦ Aka executive control processing advantages (frontal lobe regions) • Evident in childhood and in later adulthood also • Advantage found mostly in those with advanced levels of proficiency in 2 languages and use them on a regular basis  Argues for bilingual form of education as cognitive enrichment and for substantive and continuous opportunities to reach high levels of bilingual competence  THE HOME LANGUAGE ADVANTAGE  Important developmental relationships btw English learners’ home language competencies and their academic and literacy development in English • Superior achievement in English literacy • English learners with more advanced levesl of bilingual competence attain significantly higher levels of academic achievement than do those with lower levels of competence • English learners who have good phonological awareness skills in the home language acquire phonological awareness skills in English more easily and faster st nd • 1 and 2 language relationship in competence (language related skills, literacy skills, language-processing strategies) ♦ Found in English learns who are taught in English-only and in bilingual programs  So operate independently of language of instruction ♦ Effects more pronounced when ELs acquire competence in reading and writing • Suggests that ELs use all cognitive resources when learning to read, write and learn new academic skills in English ♦ Use existing home language skills to “bootstrap” into English literacy  SCHOOLING AND CULTURAL COMPETENCE  Sociocultural goals of public education- teach to appreciate and understand differences  Acculturation role of schooling • Reduce prejudice and discrimination • More likely in two-way immersion programs that include students from both language groups  Dual-language programs may be more sensitive to cultural norms of their minority- language students • Interpret behavior more accurately instead of just basing views on mainstream norms  “funds of knowledge”-shape kids behavior and learning in school • Acquired in home and community before kids come to school and include skills, knowledge, expectations, and understandings kids have about the world and their place in it • Kids from different cultural backgrounds have different funds of knowledge • Dual-language programs are better prepared to accommodate diverse students  Program Characteristics COMPONENTS TRANSITIONAL DEVELOPMENTAL TWO-WAY BILINGUAL BILINGUAL IMMERSION Language Goals Transition to English Bilingualism Bilingualism only Cultural Goals Integrate into Integrate into Maintain/integrate into mainstream American mainstream American mainstream American culture culture and maintain culture and appreciate home/heritage culture other culture Academic Goals District goals and District goals and District goals and standards standard standards Student  No/limited English  No/limited English Both native speakers Characteristics  Same home  Same home of English and language language students with  Mixed cultural  Mixed cultural no/limited English; background background different cultural backgrounds Grade Levels Served Primary and Elementary K-8; preferably K-12 elementary Entry Levels K, 1, 2 K, 1, 2 K, 1 Length of Student 2-4 years  Usually 6 years  Usually 6 years Participation (+K) (+K)  Preferably 12  Preferably 12 years (K+) years (K+) Role of Mainstream Mainstream teachers Stand-alone program Mainstream teachers Teachers must have training in with its own specially with special training sheltered instruction trained teachers Teacher Bilingual certificate  Bilingual-  Bilingual/immersio Qualifications multicultural n certification certificate  Bilingual  Bilingual proficiency proficiency  Multicultural training Instructional In the home language In the home language In the minority Materials, texts, of students and in of students and in language and in visual aids, etc English; English English; English, as required materials adapted to English materials by curriculum of study language levels adapted to language levels  TRANSTIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION (TBE)  Aka early-exit bilingual education  Historically common form of dual-language education for ELs in USA  Provides instruction in home language as they learn English  Initial instruction in literacy and academic content areas in home language as well as oral English and nonacademic subjects like art, music, PE  Designed to avoid pitfall of teaching in only English b/c kids can’t understand  As proficiency in oral English increases, gradually shift teaching to English  Transition to English usually starts with math, then reading and writing, then science and finally social studies  After can make transition to mainstream classes in English (often occurs at grade 3)  Doesn’t aim for full bilingualism  Primary goals: • Ensure mastery of grade-appropriate academic skills and knowledge • Facilitate and speed up process of learning English  Rationale: • Teaching in home language helps them acquire academic knowledge at same pace as their native English-speaking counterparts b/c learning in a language they already know • Teaching other subjects provides knowledge and experience that facilitates learning English in subsequent grade levels • Easiest language to learn to read and write is the one they already know so teach skills in home language so can then transfer to English ♦ Literacy skills transfer from one language to another (esp for languages that use the same script) • Increases likelihood that parents will be able to support kids’ academic development  DEVELOPMENTAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION (DBE)  Aka ‘maintenance bilingual education’ and ‘late-exit bilingual education’  Uses ELs’ home language and English for literacy and academic instruction through education (throughout high school where possible)  1 way program that includes primarily language-minority students (may have different cultural backgrounds and English proficiency levels but all speak the same home language)  Teach regular academic subjects in English and native language for as many grades as school district will support  Offered in a variety of minority languages  Sheltered instructional techniques are the preferred method of deli
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