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Midterm Lecture Short Summary P1.pdf

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PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC342 Midterm Summary Lecture 1 - Jan. 10: • Little emphasis on meta-knowledge (teaching how to teach, or learning how to learn…) • In science, for scientists, it’s all about publications • You either ‘publish or perish’ • The Journal Impact factor • Tells you about how prestigious or high-quality a journal is How many times an article will get cited or was cited in one year • • The h-index • Designed to tell people about the quality of a scientist • Citations = papers = h More papers with papers being cited by numerous scientists results in higher h-index • Lecture 2 - Jan. 12: • Theories Organized systems of assumptions designed to explain phenomena and their interrelationships • • Hypotheses • Attempt to predict or account for a set of phenomena; specify relationships among variables, and are empirically tested • Principle of Falsifiability • A scientific theory must make predictions specific enough to disconfirm the theory • The theory must predict not only what will happen, but also what will not happen • Always be overly skeptical about every claim being made (not just in science, but life in general) • Case studies • A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated which may be used to formulate broader research hypotheses • Naturalistic Observations • Researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behaviour without interfering with behaviour • Naturalistic observation: Purpose is to observe how people or animals behave in their natural environment • • Laboratory observation: • Purpose is to observe people or animals in a more controlled setting • Psychological tests can be objective or projective Projective test: not directly asked about a certain behaviour or personality traits, only asked to describe what you see in • random pictures; project meaning into pictures. Experimenter then projects • Objective test: IQ Test. Answers can only be interpreted in one way; no ambiguity of how to interpret the results • Characteristics of a good test include: • Standardization • Reliability • Validity • Sources of Confounding Variables: • Random Variables • Participants’ Expectations • Experimenter Bias Lecture 3 - Jan. 17: • Somatic Nervous System: • Sends sensory information to CNS for processing • Sends messages from CNS to muscles to direct motion • Autonomic Nervous System: Controls activities normally outside of conscious control. Includes sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system • • The Spinal Cord: • Cells of the spinal cord can direct simple behaviours - reflex provides speed to escape further harm • Sensory neurons are called afferent neurons Motor neurons are called efferent neurons • • Cerebral cortex is the most developed part of the brain • Limbic System: • Amygdala - deals with emotions; Hippocampus - deals with memory; Cingulate cortex - cognitive processes • Thalamus is first receiving point of sensory information. Emotions are related to memory, thus they initiate responses which are timely (i.e. Fear to induce fast response) • Two types of cells: • Glia - supporting cells & neurons • Cortex acts as an integrated whole to coordinate behaviour and cognitive processing • Action potential goes from -70mV to +40mV • Six neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine (+ and -) • Dopamine (+) • Adrenaline/Noradrenaline (+) • Serotonin (-) • Glutamate (+) • GABA (-) Small Molecule Neurotransmitters Basal Ganglia: • Monday, 16 January, 12atum (striped structure): Caudate and Putamen 25 • Globus Pallidus • Motivation, reward, movement, motor control The Midbrain: • • Tetum and Tegmentum (roof and covering) • Superior colliculus and inferior colliculus • Role in sensory processing, attention, arousal, sleep The Hindbrain: • • Cerebellum • Pons • Medulla Oblongata Peptides: • • Amino acids linked by peptide bonds • Endogenous opiates - kick in when body is in pain, can control the pain (i.e. Marathon people get runner’s high) • Important for pain relief and pleasure Nigrostriatal pathway: • • Substantial Nigra to Striatum; deals with motor control • Death of neurons in this pathway can result in Parkinson’s Disease • Mesolimbic and Mesocortical pathways: Ventral Segmental Area to Nucleus Accumbens, Amygdala and Hippcampus, and Prefrontal Cortex • • Three Different Communication Systems Within the Body: • Nervous system (uses neurotransmitters) • Endocrine system (uses hormones) Immune systems (uses cytokines) • • Interacting: NS controls hormonal release and cytokine release; hormones can affect neuronal firing Lecture 4 - Jan. 19: Functional Organization of the Nervous System: • • Hierarchical & results in increased environmental control • Controls intellect, cognition, reasoning in the neocortex • Reasons for use of Neurotransmitter in the NS: Up and down regulation of activation • • Failsafe mechanism • Development and learning • Neurotransmitter helps establish new connections Centralized control • • Excursion: Multiple Sclerosis and the Immune system: • Inflammatory disease (traditional hypothesis) • Disease of the myelin sheath; attacks and destroys them resulting in reduce processing of electrical signals through neurons • Stops perception and motor functions • Impaired veinous drainage in the brain (vascular hypothesis) • Higher pressure in NS causes the disease Endocrine means ‘the internal secretion of a biologically active substance’ • • The Definition of a Hormone: • Chemical messenger effective in minute quantities • Synthesized in ductless (no tubing) glands Secreted into and transported by blood • • Acts on receptors located far away from synthesis • Exerts a specific regulatory effect on target cells • Slower than neurons; timing is not an issue for hormones Does not target a specific area but rather diffuses throughout the body • • Exceptions to the Rule (Hormones): • Some hormones not synthesized in ductless glands • Hormones sometimes act as neurotransmitters (paracrine function) Can influence cell that released them (autocrine function) • • Can get feedback from body • Hormones can generalized effects, or different effects depending on the specific receptor type • Two chemical classes of hormones: amino acids and peptides (which cannot get to the brain unless already there) and steroid hormones which are already in the brain • Overview of the Endocrine System: The Endocrine Control Center Located within the diencephalon; includes the hypothalamus and pituitary gland • • Controls a number of endocrine glands and a range of physiological activities • Major point of interaction of nervous system and endocrine system • Part of limbic system; thus takes part in relay center Hormone Name Place of Role Additional Notes Synthesis Corticotropin Releasing Hypothalamus Stimulated secretion of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone CRH releases ACTH Hormone (CRH) (ACTH) from pituitary Gonadotropin Releasing Hypothalamus Controls release of Luteninising Hormone (LH) and Hormone (GnRH) Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (LSH) Growth Hormone Releasing Hypothalamus Stimulates Growth Hormone secretions from the Pituitary Hormone (GHRH) gland Thyrotropin Releasing Hypothalamus Stimulates cells in anterior pituitary gland to produce and Hormone (TRH) release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Dopamine Neurons located When released, act as primary prolactin-inhibitory A class of in Hypothalamus hormone in the pituitary. Deals with motor and reward neurotransmitters functions Somatostatin Hypothalamus Inhibits Growth Hormone, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; aka GH-IH inhibits insulin, glucagon, and secretin production Oxytocin and Vasopressin Hypothalamus Transported and released in posterior pituitary. Regulates CNS = release from HT. (paraventricular water balance, blood pressure, memory. Oxytocin: uterine Rest of body = release nucleus) contractions, parental behaviours, attachment bonds, trust from pituitary gland • The Pituitary: • Attached to the HT by the hypohyseal stalk (infundibulum) • Anterior pituitary (adenohypohysis) • Production of hormones triggered by production of hormones released in the hypothalmus • Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) • Releases six hormones, mostly tropic The Hormones of the Pituitary Gland: • • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - Adrenal Cortex • Growth Hormone (GH) • Released in spurts and much higher quantities during the development period • If something goes wrong, and growth hormones stops, bones stop growing; thus GH will result in the way you look • During critical development period, GH will determine your growth (height, face, hands, feet) • Organizational effect: hormones active during ‘critical period’ Acromegaly is an effect of GH malproduction • • Excess production of GH • Before or after organizational period, still causes problems • Prolactin (PRL) - Mammary Glands • Production of breast milk • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - Thyroid gland • To release TH Luteinizing hormone (LH) - Gonads • • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - Gonads • Hormones of the HT stimulate secretion of hormones from the PT • Not one to one relationship (e.g., CRH - ACTH) • ACTH that is released to ACTH from pituitary to CRH from hypothalamus • Not unidirectional (PT hormones affect HT) • Not only regulated by HT but also by neurotransmitter Limbic system hormones will control many emotions • • The Pineal Gland: • Produces melatonin • Directly under control of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) • Mostly involved with coordinating sleep/wake cycle • Glands Outside the CNS: • Thyroid gland Adrenal gland • • Pancreas • Gonads • Ovaries • The Thyroid Gland: • Regulated by TSH, located in the neck • Produces two hormones from Iodine: Triiodothronine (T3) & Tetraiodothyronine (T4) Production ratio of 20:1 (T4:T3) • Binds to Thyroid Binding Globuline • • Regulates body metabolism and controls the development of the CNS • Controls sexual maturation and plays a role in temperature regulation • Also produces parathyroid hormone, regulating calcium Hypo- and hypersecretion associated with poor physical and mental health • • A failing gland is associated with increase fatigue, facial puffiness, skin decolourations, skin dryness • The Thyroid System: • Hypothalamus - Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone • Pituitary - Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone • Like a tree which branches out. The CNS can branch out the effect instead of having to release all the hormones required at once • As hormone travels, it decreases; thus, there is an amplification effect where small amount of TRH releases a larger amount of TSH and follow through • Hypothyroidism (hypo = less): • Excessive weight, droopy eyes, level of alertness, enlarged lips/neck, looks less intelligent • The Pancreas: • Two organs: The exocrine pancreas and the endocrine pancreas Endocrine pancreas: “Islets Langerhans” produce insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptides • • Modulation of cellular nutrition • Diabetes Mellitus • B cells in the Islets of Langerhans produce Insulin. Normally, pancreas secretes 45 units of insulin per day Close association with glucose - tenfold variation • • Affects the function of almost all bodily tissues; Liver: glycogen synthesis and storage, Muscles: protein synthe
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