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Midterm Lecture Short Summary P2.pdf

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McGill University
PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC342 Midterm Summary P2Lecture 7Jan 31Radioimmunoassay can be used with blood or saliva samplesSome problems with the techniquespecicity of the antibodiesDependency on If the receptor is not specic for a given hormone it will bind to and thus detect other hormones from the same category that are not of interest with other hormones with a similar structureCrossreactivityAutoradiographyA postdeath assessmentUsed to determine hormonal uptake and receptor locationPrepare target tissue usually slices stain half of them to highlight cellular structure Prepare hormone radio label itExpose unstained tissue to hormone Expose hormonetissue compounds to photographic lmDevelop lmPharmacological TechniquesGeneral agonists mimic the administration of a certain hormone but it is not released and antagonists prevent hormone from having anymore reaction by blocking hormone from binding to the receptorGenetic ManipulationsInsertion of a gene not normally there transgenicRemoval of a gene not normally there knockoutSex is biological aspect gender is societal and cultural aspectSex emerges during foetal and early life developmentPrimary sexual characteristics are the organs vital for reproduction including genesSecondary sexual characteristics are the things that develop from pubertySexual Differentiation Up To PubertyGonadal sex men have testes seminal vesicles prostate gland and tubing women have ovaries uterus oviductsHormonal sex men produce a high androgen to estrogen ratio women is the oppositeMorphological sex men are larger and strongerSexual orientation males are usually attracted to females and vice versaGender roles and gender identity most people have the deep inner conviction that they belong to the sex they possess based on society and cultural factorsFrom Chromosomes to GonadsNo different between the two during the rst six weeks of development bipotentialityOn the Y chromosome there is the SRY gene sex determining region of the Y chromosome which produces the TDF testis determining factor a protein which will lead to the development of the testes from the germinal ridgeBlueprint of original sex is female unless Y chromosome is expressedTDF stimulates Leydig cells to prevent the formation of the female genital tract from the Mllerian ductsHappens through Mllerian Inhibitory Hormone MIHHigh in males postnatally until pubertyNo presence in females until puberty femaleNo SRY no differentiation From Genitals to Sexual DevelopmentThe testis once determined will then start producing sexspecic hormones which will lead the way to specic sexual developmentWhole cycle only present in mammalsIn reptiles SRY is present but not critical instead temperature determines sexBirds Males have ZZ chromosome and females WZ default setting maleMechanisms of Hormone ActionTestosterone has masculinizing effects through conversion to estradiol via aromataseThus estradiol has masculinizing effectsEstradiol absent in the developing femaleBlocking aromatase blocks masculinizationBabies at nine month capable of discriminating between the sexesSexual Differentiation at PubertyDramatic surge of Hypothalamic hormones prior to and during puberty LH FSH from Pituitarysignicant boost in production of sex steroid hormonesGnRH Men Leydig cells testosteroneWomen estrogenIn addition Adrenal cortex DHEA Androstenedione as puberty approachesOccurs around six to seven years old in girls seven to eight years old in boysResults in growth spurt acne body odour Abnormal Sexual Development Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome CAISWhen the perfect woman is genetically maleOrganism is not responsive to androgen either receptors is not working or they do not exert any effect from the androgenEven though you produce testosterone your body does not accept the hormonesYour switching over from male sexual development to female sexual development is sterilePubertal feminization still occurs becauseIndividuals with CAIS DO respond to estrogenThe testis are a source of androgen which is converted to estrogen
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