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Developmental Psychopathology.docx

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McGill University
PSYC 412

What is abnormal behaviour in youthPATTERN is it just a one time eventDISTRESS is anyone upset about itDISABILITY does it get in the wayRISK could it lead to problems in the futureA general model of disorderDiathesis vulnerabilityStress challenges that call on resourcesInteraction of these two increases the chances of the disorderResearch methodsWhat is science and why botherScience is a systematic method for investigating questionsResearch has to hit realityyou need to establish methodologies that allow you to answer your questionsTheory and prior researchoDepression in kids is associated with greater victimization by parentspeersoDepression in kids is associated with poorer social skills theyre more likely to be aggressive and less likely to be assertiveResearch question do social skills explain the association between depression and victimizationHypothesesoDepressionincreased interpersonal aggressionincreased victimizationoDepressiondecreased assertivenessincreased victimizationMeasurementoDepression social skills victimizationResearch design sample who are you going to look at and methodologyTheres a lot of skepticism towards research oIts incredibly expensiveoCommon sense a lot of the answers are obviousoFraud researchers are suspected of just making their data upoFindings change over timeoConclusions are complicated theres not usually a blanket answerDifferent parenting styles are differentially effective depending on the type of neighbourhoodoThere are always exceptions to the rule science really only tells us about averagesWhy botheroFraud isnt commonoSometimes common sense is wrongBabies were supposed to be sleeping on their stomachs but now it is common sense that they sleep on their backs to prevent SIDSoFindings should change People thought that group treatment for antisocial youth was harmfulReanalysis of this data figured out that it wasnt the other antisocial youth its that the problem is that individual treatment is better than any kind of groupoThe findings are complicated because behaviour and emotions are complicatedoAnecdote is not dataScience is not perfect but its the best available way for us to do thisNosology in developmental psychopathology Categorical versus dimensional measurementClassification of diseaseIn developmental psychopathology it is defined as the organization of behavioural and emotional dysfunction into meaningful groupings putting order into all the problems people haveDSM IV is the current edition of the nosological frameworkoDSM V is being released shortlyoThis outlines the diagnoses and the criteria associated with themoCategorical system each disorder is discreteCategorical systems are chosen for a number of reasonsIts really good for collecting and organizing massive amounts of informationAids in communication by giving a standard which to refer toThere are however several disadvantagesChildren often dont fit into categories most kids are comorbid and meet the criteria for multiple disorders does this mean that these things are real categoriesThere is a significant number of children who are impaired but do not meet criteria for any diagnosisTheres a loss of information when you put someone into a category because you dont know which of the characteristics they meet anymoreCurrent categories prove inadequate for genetic and neuroscience researchoProfessional consensus after review of all available data is the mechanism of creating these diagnoses and the criteriaoThis is a medical model which means that we look at disorders as discrete with separate causes which may not be the caseDimensional measurements instead of categorical the DSM5 is beginning to move towards thisoThere are individual traits and you are higher or lower on these dimensionsoAdvantagesThey allow us to retain a lot more informationProvides a clear measure of severity of the disorderoDisadvantagesThis gets complicated very quickly because theres so much informationoResearch is currently ongoing to determine if dimensional is better or categorical isWith categorical someone who has a disorder is fundamentally different from someone else This is a difference of kind not a difference of degree With many cases there is not a qualitative difference between people who have this and people who dont even with something like autism where youd think itd be clearcut
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