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Developmental Psychopathology REVIEW.docx

20 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 412
Professor
Melanie Dirks

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Description
Key Terms -Defining Abnormal Behavior: 1)Norm Violation 2)Statistical Rarity 3)Personal Discomfort 4)Maladaptive Behavior 5)Deviation from an Ideal PATTERN (Is it just a one-time event?) of symptoms associated with: o distress (Does it get in the way?) o disability (Does it get in the way?) o increased risk (Could it lead to problems in the future?) for further suffering or harm See p. 34 Figure 2.2 in textbook for Developmental Benchmark *To understand maladaptive behavior, one must view it in relation to what is considered normative* -Who ends up with Problems? Gender: o Differences in timing o Males show higher rates of disorders in childhood ADHD, early onset conduct problems o Females show higher rates of disorders in adolescence Depression, eating disorders o Differences in form Males show higher levels of externalizing problems o Females show higher levels of internalizing problems SES disadvantage (linked to MANY disorders) Culture: o Meaning of behaviors and expression of symptoms varies E.g., fire setting o E.g., bereavement o E.g., Gender differences in expression of depression/anxiety o Impact varies by disorder Less cultural impact on more neurobiological based disorders Ethnicity and Race: o Effects generally better accounted for by SES and culture -Disability + Risk: o Failure to reach developmental milestones o Lack of progress along adaptive developmental trajectories -Diathesis Stress Model: o Diathesis: (doesNOT=disorder) (Vulnerability[Biological or Not]) underlying vulnerability or tendency toward disorder could be biological, contextual, or experience-based o Stress: (doesNOT=disorder) (Challenge that calls on resources) situation or challenge that calls on resources typically thought of as external, negative events interaction (^ probability of disorder) makes disorder more probable could have multiple interacting diatheses and stressors Under stress, diathesis increases likelihood of disorder -Multifinality and equifinality: See page ? in Textbook for clarification -Nosology: Organization of behavioral and emotional dysfunction into meaningful groupings DSM (IV): Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Outlines diagnoses and associated criteria Dimensional measurement Independent traits or dimensions of behavior exist People are higher or lower on those dimensions Advantages: -Retain valuable info. -Measure of severity Disadvantages: (Dimensions?)-Complicated quickly Categorical System Disorders are viewed to be discrete categories (depression, social anxiety, ODD) Professional consensus Medical Model (Discrete disorders with separate causes) -Comorbidities: -Etiology: -Binge Eating: - Eating in a discrete period of time (less than 2 hours) an amount of food that is definitely larger than most individuals would eat under similar circumstances. - Usually (but doesnt have to be) high-calorie foods, like ice cream or cake. - On average, eaters consume roughly 1500 calories during a binge, about 5 times more than they normally ate at one time. - Shame, often occurs in secrecy - Uncomfortably or even painfully full - Often triggered by low mood, interpersonal stressors, intense hunger following dietary restraint, or feelings related to body weight, body shape, and food. - May temporarily reduce dysphoria, but disparaging self-criticism and depressed mood often follows - Also characterized by feelings of lack of control - Frenzied state, dissociative state. - After a while, they may no longer feel a lack of control, but there are behavioural indicators (difficulty stopping) - But, not absolute, may stop for example when a roommate comes home - -Also characterized by feelings of lack of control - Frenzied state, dissociative state. - After a while, they may no longer feel a lack of control, but there are behavioural indicators (difficulty stopping) - But, not absolute, may stop for example when a roommate comes home - B. Compensatory methods to prevent weight gain - Most common is induction of vomiting (80-90%) (According to the DSM-IV) - Diuretics, laxatives, enemas. - May also excessively exercise or fast. - Immediate effect is reduction of physical discomfort - - NOT HELPFUL (maybe just losing water, e.g.) - - Also, some research suggests that we have a set point that we cant change with adverse consequences After Midterm Condition Eating Disorders Child Child Bipola Mental PD A. Anorexia Nervosa Maltreat Depress r Retarda D B. Bulimia Nervosa ment ion Disor tion C. Eating Disorder NOT otherwise der specified Definition A. 1. Refusal to maintain a minimal body weight (less than 85%) 2. Intense fear of gaining weight 3. Disturbed sense of weight /shape B. 1. Recurrent binge eating (large amount, lack of control) 2. Compensatory behaviors 3. Self-evaluation dominated by weight / shape C. Epidemiolog y Compensato ry Methods Diagnostic A. Criteria o Refusal to maintain a body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. < 85% EBW o Intense fear of weight gain. o Disturbance sense of shape/weight, self-evaluation influenced largely by shape/weight, or denial of seriousness of low weight. Egosyntonic (Pro-Ana) o In postmenarcheal (have had 1st period) females, amenorrhea (no period). Subtypes: o Restricting type (about 50%) No binge-purge behaviors. Dieting, fasting, excessive exercise. o Binge-eating / purging type (about 50%) Binge-purge behaviors Compared to individuals with bulimia, tend to eat relatively small amounts of food and purge more consistently. B. o Recurrent episodes of binge eating (loss of control) o Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors o These are occurring at least twice a week for three months o Self-evaluation unduly influenced by weight o Does not meet criteria for AN Other: Typically within the normal weight
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