Islam Final Guide + Comparative Notes.docx

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Religious Studies
RELG 204
Charles Douglas Fletcher

Islam Study Guide Part I18 of the following terms and identify 15 2 pointsImam Leader as in the salatprayer service Shiites revere their imams as exalted leadersSunniAhl alsunna waljamaa People of the prophets Sunna and the main community More often known as Sunnis They are the majority of MuslimsShia Party of Aliprophets descendants as leadersa sondescendent of Ali after the Death of MuhammadIhsan Performing good deedswrong and rightAbbasid an Islamic dynasty founded in Baghdad in the midseventh century Abbasid caliphs played a major role in the preservation of Hellenistic culture within Islam Their cultivation of the rabbinic Gaonim enabled the latter to play a crucial role in the spread of rabbinic Judaism throughout Islamic landMasjid Place of prostration that is MosqueJihad Exertion in the way of God Sometimes translated as holy warfare but that is only one meaning IslamSubmission to God One who submits is a Muslim Islam is the name of the religion revealed by god in the QuranRashidun Caliphs From Arabic Khalifasuccessor or deputy The title applied to the political leaders who succeeded the prophet Muhammad Caliphate is the office from khalifaDin Religion meaning the beliefs and devotional practices of Islam or any religion taken as a whole Islam is know n as aldin al islami the Islamic religionNiyya right intention required before performing salat and other rites Lecture 2 The prophet Muhammad and his timesUmayyads the first Muslim dynasty ruling from Damascus from 661 to 750Sharia the whole structure of divinely revealed Islamic legislation based on the Quran and SunnaUlama the learned in religion and lawMecca city in the Hejaz and the capital of Makah Province in Saudi Arabia Birthplace of Muhammad and a site of the revelation of the Quran as well as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and Hajj take place hereMedina AlMedina al minawara city of lights It is the second holiest city after Mecca and the burial place of Muhammad It is extremely important because it was where Muhammad established his final religious base after HijraKaba The cubicle structure at the center of the grand mosque in Mecca believed to have been built by Abraham as the first sanctuary for the monotheistic worship of god Muslims around the world pray facing toward the KabaQuraysh Powerful merchant tribe that controlled Mecca and its Kaaba upon the appearance of Islam Muhammad was born into the Banu Hashim clan of this tribe Jahiliyya The age of ignorance in preIslamic Arabia according to Islamic opinionSira biography of the prophetKhadija Muhammads Wife He first worked under her and she was one of his first followersGabriel The Angel that was sent by god to call Muhammad to prophecy IqraReadNight Journey Muhammad took the Isra and Miraj during a single night It is a physical and spiritual journeyHijra the emigration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 Marks the beginning of the Muslim calendarIbn Ishaq ArabMuslim historian He collected oral traditions that formed the basis of prophet Muhammads most important biographyYathrib Now Medina Medinat alnabiHudaybiyya important event that took place during the formation of Islam It was a pivotal treaty between Muhammad representing the state of Medina and the Quraysh tribe of Mecca It was used to decrease the tension between the two cities and affirmed a 10year peace It also authorized Muhammads followers to return the following year after the first pilgrimageBadr Battle of Badr Jews of medinaMuslim victory against invading Meccan punitiveMiraj Night journey to the heavensNabi ProphetRasul Apostle messenger of God entrusted with a scriptural revelationQuran Recitation Gods oral revelations gathered in the book known as the QuranSura Chapter of the QuranSunna The custom of the prophet Muhammad known through the literary form of Hadith report of something Muhammad said or didHadith Report of something the prophet Muhammad did or said They were documented because to Muslims Muhammad is the perfect human being and has embodied every aspect of what Allah wants in human beings Abrogation Linguistic meaning the cancellation ablation or nullification of a verse or a verdict from the Quranconventional meaning the meaning thoroughly studied by Islamic scholarsIsnad The chain of transmitters supporting HadithMatn The Meaning or main study of HadithAlBukhari Imam alBukhari was a Persian Sunni Islamic scholar who authored the hadith collection known as Sahih al Bukhari and regarded by Sunni Muslims as the most sahih authentic of all hadith compilationsAya Sign also verse of the QuranHafiz One who has memorized the entire Quran by heartIjaz Miraculousness of the Quranto render incapable a way to refer to the QuranImami Shiites the main Shiite Sect which recognizes 12 imams the last of which is living in a mysterious state of occultation Also known as the Twelver sect of ShiismthIsmaili Shiites imamate and Jafar AlSadiq6 imamAli adopted by Muhammad and was the second Believer
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