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SOCI 219 (2)


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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 219
Amm Quamruzzaman

Cultural Globalization and the Globalization of Cultures - Globalization –rapid process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, th institutions/indthiduals world-wide - some think its new (related to capitalism, 19 C), others old (never time without it) – 20 C global culture about increasing trade/exchange of cultural products, rising culture industry/media, labour movement - Modernization Theory – explain the process of modernization, linear progressive transition from pre modern to modern society, traditional countries can be brought to development in the same manner developed countries did o Contemporary and pre-modern global culture differ – before about religious globalization - Rostow's 5 stages of economic growth - paved the way for neoliberal free market doctrine Traditional Limited technology; static society - transition triggered by external influence/interests/markets Preconditions for Commercial exploitation of agriculture and extractive industry - installation of physical infrastructure (roads, railways, etc.) and emergence of take off social/political elite Take off Development of manufacturing sector -investment in manufacturing exceeds 10% of national income, development of modern social, economic and political institutions Drive to maturity Development of wider industrial and commercial base - exploitation of comparative advantages in international trade High mass Developed Nation consumption - Criticisms o Focus on cultural factors - W culture is modern vs. others traditional, W superiority is economic, not cultural o Eurocentric view – doesn’t acknowledge Europe's modernization is due to others' underdevelopment - Dependency Theory – resources go from periphery (poor/underdeveloped) to core wealthy states, enriching rich at the expense of the poor, poor are impoverished because of how they’re integrated into world system (from LA) o Colonial/imperialist policy created core and periphery - unequal and dependent relationship o Periphery supplies cheap raw materials/labour; industrialized core sells finished goods to it at a higher price - World Systems Theory (Wallerstein) o Core/developed nations - control world trade and monopolize manufactured goods o Semi-peripheral zone - large urban areas (like core), large rural poverty areas (like periphery) ex. Brazil o Peripheral countries - provides primary products for both semi periphery and core ex. Asia, Africa o Dynamic relationship – from periphery to semi periphery (Asian Tigers) or core to semi periphery (Britain) o Globalisation/international division of labour is basis of global inequality – started with imperial expansion  Wallerstein – global culture started in 16 C –slave trade, colonial rule, proselytization  Today, religious authority less but religious secular universal norms (capitalism, democracy, human rights) are more powerful and intolerant - secular proselytizers are defenders of the global culture • Ex. De-skilling of labour or proletarianization occurs (e.g. call centres, MNCs, migration)  Wallerstein - world social systems both systematic (have rules) and historical (have lives and evolve) - Consequences of globalization - Holton - three major theses on globalization's cultural consequences: o Homogenization - Westernization, Americanization – imagined by McLuhan (1960s), emerging global village  Critical theorists -global pillage by the rich and powerful in expense of the poor  Results in a worldwide standardization of lifestyles through mcdonaldization and coca colonization o Hybridization - intermixing of cultures renders distinct and pure culture obsolete, Diffusion by W cultural industries of ideas and practices, leading to demise of other cultures  Ritzer - globalization results in loss of social forms (i.e. indigenously conceived, controlled, rich)  Barber - bloodless economics of profit - McWorld is coming to dominate everywhere o Polarization - producing hostility between different cultural worlds - clash of civilizations  Barber - antithesis of McWorld is Jihad, turn towards communalism and rejection of western ideals  Hungtington - with demise of communism, ideologies are no longer important  Culture/conflicts defining feature of global struggles for power, battle between W/Islamic civilizations - 9/11 - Bush espoused beliefs as a born-again Christian – global war good vs. evil o Deterritorialization - loss of the natural relation of culture to geographical and social territories Globalization and Identity - Modernization and dependency theories think identities are dangerous (religious, national, or ethnic), divided, often have more than one identity- fragmented identities are harmful for individuals/ globalization process o Stress new ideas – modernization argues it is not suitable in globalized world to have more than one identity, we should have only one global identity, citizens of the world (whole world is your country), dependency theory think global identity is artificial and not possible, not everyone can migrate, further people have class based identity - debate about what should be our identity - Modernization stresses that globalization is recent phenomenon, whereas dependency argues it is centuries old - Modernization - globalization causes homogenization, dependency - hybridization, polarization, deterritorialization - Culture (what we do, way we live), society (community, space where we live) - link between them (live in a place and develop our culture) - due to globalization this link is being broken down - Why are identities polarizing? o Because in globalized world people feel alienated from a state that can no longer represent them or help them build meaning in their live, therefore state must adopt with changing situation for their survival o Identity is way of constructing meaning in people's lives - if you want to identify with a state, your identity must also change (gap between identity and state culture - cultural gap theory) o Globalization is the main agent for state’s survival ex. no state can survive without opening their market - state is moving forward, but people can't identify with global process because they cannot move from their identity – ex. not everyone can migrate, so they resist globalization (resist movement causing identity crisis) - Identity – (Castells) - process whereby people draw on a cultural attributes to build meaning in their lives, cultural constructs people create in referring to something lies beyond them but also defines who they are as individuals, built upon personal experience (real/perceived common history, ancestor, culture, language, geographic area) o Three types of identities  Legitimizing - identity in a nation gives us some legitimation  Resistance based - groups who have had difficult experiences in cultural, political or social terms, resist by constructing an identity allowing them to resist assimilation by system subordinating them  Project based - based on self-identification with a project of national or generic nature ex. feminist movement, may have historical foundations, Clash of civilization (Huntington) between W and Muslim based on project-based identities (feminism) feminism is project based identity started in W and Muslim/Islamic resistance based identity is in direct confrontation, becoming more important because people don’t want resistance based identities because it can create problems - Different types of globalization o Culture globalization  Information/communication technology closes distances between countries o Economic globalization (most important) - started other types  Globalization is a process of structuring economy, politics, societies, institutions and cultures, creates interdependent national economies linked to world trade, economy’s core is global, but labour force is not, includes everything with a monetary value, excludes everything that does not o Political globalization  Ex. Muslim world, state loses legitimacy if it does not represent Islam; but also loses international legitimacy if it represents Islam (.e.g. a failed terrorist state)  Ex. In W, nations being denied opportunity of forming own states- Catalonia, Scotland, and Quebec o Institutional Globalization  International institutions play an increasingly important role in dealing with world problems ex. UN and human rights, WHO and HIV/Aids – superstructure of international institutions work together in global networks/networked states - Is globalization good or bad? o Not black or white, may be beneficial for economy but harmful to environment Culture in Social Movements - Social movements - collective action that requires a broad alliance of people, either loosely or tightly organized to achieve some common goals, usually to implement some change in the existing social policy or resist the implementation of some new policy, action sustains for relatively long time, requires dedicated resources, willing, sacrificing activists, supporters, organizers, money, time, ritualistic aspects (celebrations for strengthening solidarity i.e. singing, dressing, parading, dancing, cultural shows) Theories of Social Movements - Collective Behaviour Models – (1970s) – see social movements as deviant and irrational - Resource Mobilization Theory – (1970s) – ability of a movement’s members to acquire resources and mobilize people towards accomplishing the movement’s goals - Political Process Theory - political opportunities, mobilizing structures, and cultural framings as the building blocks o Political opportunities - state oppression or shifts in power - define whether movements succeed o Mobilizing structures - define if politically marginalized groups are powerless or networks capable of supplying leadership and the solidary incentives that motivate people to participate o Cultural framings - contexts in which movements take place - define how the movement goals are supported as legitimate against a prevailing system/policy of injustice • Cognitive liberation: process by which people came to see oppression as both unjust and subject to change, replaced by the term collective action framing - whether it will be framed as nonviolent or radical (Goffman) - schemes of interpretation in everyday life – interpret as good or bad • Swidler's (1986) cultural tool kit - stock of meanings, beliefs, ideologies, practices, values, myths and narratives that help to create new cultural framings - New Social Movement Theory – tries to explain new movements emerging in various W societies since 1960s o Emergence of new movements linked to new individual needs and values – depart from the conventional social movement paradigm – two central claims (1) rise of post-industrial economy is responsible (2) movements are significantly different from previous social movements of the industrial economy o Gramsci emphasized importance of civil society as a site distinct from state and capitalist production on which a expending array of social and political identities are forged and social struggles organized o Culture is any action/creation that has symbolic meanings and politics is both the state and civil society o Ritzer's McDonalidization is an excellent description of a fully rationalized system – reduces the person to act like a machine, where individual scope of action/decisions are minimized, o Melucci coined new social movement, by which he meant any collective action that targets culture itself Cultural Imperialism and Wars - 2 major drivers of globalization and Western civilization: imperialism and war o Imperialism is the outlook of the empire whose practice is called colonialism o Colonialism - project of European political, economic and cultural domination from 16th to mid- 20th C, gave rise to culturally and ethnically mixed and racially-divided population o Imperialism - based on capital accumulation initially through mercantilism, then free trade and militarism - In globalization era, capital accumulation and domination takes places importantly through cultural imperialism – (Marxists) - cultural hegemony of the industrial West to yoke all nations to the world trade network, telegraphy, telephone, radio, television, internet made cultural globalization easier (invented as military technologies) - Global culture - mass culture of the metropolis War is Culture - War (Clausewitz) - continuation of politics by other means, Mirzeoff defines war as culture - Cultural war - new warfare, culture as means, location, justification and object, visual technologies play central role - Globalized as a global war against terrorism; it is a global counterinsurgency or global peace keeping Culture as Means of Warfare - Counterinsurgency -a cultural war, to be fought in the US as much as it is in Iraq and elsewhere - "victory is achieved when the populace consents to the government's legitimacy and stops actively and passively supporting the insurgency." - example 3-D first person games ex. trademark for Shock and Awe – no way to end the game expect continuing to play, permanent play rather than exit Cultural as Location of War - UNESCO states: all wars with their turmoil, maiming and killing, wantonly destroy the soul and disfigure the memory of what constitutes a people's very identity, in other words its culture ex. Iraq, 8000 years of history are at stake Culture as Justification of War - Huntington’s Clash of Civilization Thesis ex. Vietnam o Kurtz - because Muslims practice cousin marriage, they are incapable of becoming part of modernity - Cultural knowledge is essential to waging a successful counterinsurgency ex. anthropologist attached to each combat brigade in Iraq and Afghanistan - Foucault - racism may ultimately require the death of the inferior as the elimination of a biological threat ex. Nazis - With race, gender, sexuality are closely linked ex. after attacking Afghanistan Bush said much of Afghanistan, women are no longer imprisoned in their homes, the fight against terrorism is also a fight for the rights and dignity of women – Stabile and Kumar argues focus on women's liberation in Afghanistan was a noble ideal to sell war War is a game? - Stabile and Kumar - to fully comprehend the gender apartheid instituted by the Taliban beginning in 1996, one must first understand what their situation was prior to the rise of the Taliban - Afghanistan's Constitution, written in 1964, ensured basic rights for women such as universal suffrage and equal pay, rise of the Taliban was due to US support, they provided financial/technical support as a strategy of drawing USSR into war, as Vietnam had for US USSR l,ft Afghanistan (1989); mujahedeen parties formed government and started curtailing women's rights, Taliban came to power in 1996 and openly violated women's rights, despite this, US supported Taliban to secure a contract for an oil pipeline, women's suffrage received little media attention before 9/11, after coverage of Afghan women increased as part of the lead up to the war Subcultures and Resistance - Subculture - smaller cultural group whose values and related behaviours distinguish its members from the larger culture ex. tatooees, graffiti writers - most compatible with the values and norms of mainstream culture, but some hold values and norms in opposition to dominant culture - this is counter culture - subcultural groups whose values, norms, activities or goals oppose the mainstream culture ex. outlaw motorcyclists, KKK, gangs - illegal Graffiti – words, pictures, symbols or messages painted on buildings, lockers, walls, monuments or street furniture, vandalism that damages private property - subculture or counter culture? - Considered a property crime that causes damage ex. LA airport private jet - Motive for graffiti vandalism? Ex. create awareness about a cause ex. “No War” on Opera House in Australia - By law it is a crime (detention, fines) but message could be noble, in that essence there is nothing wrong o People do it for different reasons; think it’s cool, impress others, become more popular, defy authority, express feelings (frustration, anger, revenge), mark territory - 2008- Montreal artists decided to create artistic murals: 11 murals have been created to beautify Montreal o Mural created in 2007 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Expo 67 - why is it a mural and not graffiti? Because it’s controlled and approved by the ruling class and supports capitalist interests - Graffiti on an ad that just says SINA - private property so it is vandalism, but why this sign? Contemporary graffiti writing occurs in an urban environment increasingly defined by the segregation and control of social space - Control or destroy public space through privatization and physical insulation, extensive public and private police power and control technologies to enforce spatial restrictions – go against this face criminalization – private property is important in capitalist societies (going against segregation of space is going against capitalism) - Graffiti writers have new forms of resistance and increased militancy- taking huge risks (jail, fines) - advantage to them, they like it, one said "they build the boringest crap around, so why not beautify it?", "Graffiti means "I'm here"… they want to snub us, but they can't" - Graffiti writers and crews serve as the folk artists or urban communities; day to day chroniclers of urban life and death, they represent the worlds they help create - passion for destruction is a creative passion too Tattooed people – amazing creativity (for sale), tattooing 6 fastest growing retail business - Popular images of tattoos has changed from gang affiliated young people to high achieving individuals, once banned tattoo parlors, have now become ubiquitous in many towns, many celebrities have visible tattoos - Some individuals invoke tattooing as a critique of consumer society, tattoos have become popular commodity – ex. tattoos in healing process for women who have mastectomy scars, special rate for breast cancer survivors - Perceptions of tattooed women as sexually promiscuous and lower-class are outdated - women of all classes started defying that identity - tattoos became more common, can’t express subversive definitions of women/their bodies - Men use tattoos to reinforce traditional notions of masculinity, women defy/reproduce standards of femininity - Some neo-primitive tattoo artists arrange ceremonies to coincide with phases of the moon or include chanting, drumming and burning of sage in their sessions - Others use tattooing to criticize the consumer values and emptiness of capitalist society Culture as Freedom - Hegelian dialectics: culture helps maintain the repressive status quo and culture has the potential to change it One-dimensional society - dialectical process has three dimensions: thesis, antithesis and synthesis - Frankfurt School Theorists claim that Western society is predominantly one dimensional - In Western society, two major philosophical traditions developed: (1) dialectical thinking and (2) differentiation Differentiation – based on formal logic – two contradictory propositions cannot co-exist - Contradictions must be reconciled by comparing both propositions, then deciding which one is right - People may change opinions in order to reduce cognitive dissonance caused by the contradictory propositions Dialectical Thinking - based on idea of world constantly changing- part can’t be understood except in relation to whole - Change and complexity imply contradiction - key feature of W dialectical thinking is integration, starting with recognition of contradiction, then moving to reconciliation of basic elements of opposing perspectives - Law of non-contradiction - problem solving/trial and error Ex. Culture and Art (painting, music, literature, theater, architecture, philosophy) – more philosophical, romanticism, - Marcuse - one dimensional - describes modes of increasing domination, process of homogenization of society and culture that suppressed higher dimensions of critiques and alternatives o Modes of domination - surplus repression, repressive desublimation, technological rationality - Culture and art lost their radical potential, become conservative and integrated in structure of consumer society - Pre industrial society -authentic works of bourgeois culture expressed a conscious, methodical alienation from entire sphere of business and industry and from its calculable and profitable order, romantic subversive figures of pre-industry society represented alienation from alienated world of labour, commerce and oppression - Today, new totalitarianism - harmonizing pluralism - contradictory works/truths peacefully coexist in indifference - According to the law of dialectics, culture and art still have potential for social change – how? o Great Refusal - protest against that which is o Critical and dialectical thinking - rejection of the current worldview of differentiation o Aesthetic reduction - merger of art/technology in radical reconstruction of technology and environment o Focus on human as creative, social and altruistic species being rather than selfish consumers Ex. Culture Jamming – organized, social activist effort that aims to counter the bombardment of consumption- oriented messages in the mass media (effort to reject media messages) – more practical - Inspired by technique of electronically interfering with broadcast signals for military or political purposes - Tactics (1) alteration of corporate ads (Billboard Liberation Front) (2) parody of corporate/NGO websites (Yes Men) (3) appropriation of consumer goods through shoplifting/rebranding (Yomango) (4) critic of culture (Guerrilla Girls) - Refusal to Media Messages to… o Achieve transparency against asymmetrical efforts of power/other distortions in communications apparatus o Clarify obscured meaning in media messages - Defying Consumerism o Consumer Boycott - Buy Nothing Day – media-oriented, damage target’s reputation  Two reasons (1) entry of more women into workforce, turning them into consumers (2) difficult to get people to stop buying products as consumer identity binds them together, I shop therefore I am - Culture jamming attempts to remediate: (1)plethora of commercial identities inserted into contemporary life(2)pervasiveness of culture industry (3)all-encompassing spectacle of the commodity sign - Knowledge of brands is a form of cultural capital and facility with them is part of a habitus - culture jamming attempts to educate consumers by exposing the backstage of production and labor exploitation by big brands - Re-enforcing consumerism(critique) o Knowing about importance of cultural capital to consumers, brands tends to appeal to them as authentic, empowering, green products ex. Nike’s PVC-free products in recycled boxes, code of ethics for suppliers or fair trade (chocolate, coffee) – another producer side o Affecting change on the consumer side of the market equation often has limited effect Culture, Development and Social Change - Development is a social change in a positive direction – both as an ends and a means of development - Outcome of social change can have impact on culture or mechanism of social change are linked to culture - Sen – development enhances human capabilities/freedoms, related to norms, values, how freedom’s defined - ends of development is cultural/freedom - debate between economic growth/human development as the ends Culture as Means – ex. tourism - Tourism interrupts local culture by letting other cultures invade - tourist Gaze - foreign people go visit exotic places, rural areas etc look at people, observe life/culture, pleasant for tourist but not for locals, sense of been monitored, not comfortable, related to technology (ex. taking pictures without consent) - Weber's thesis: protestant religious values created a spirit of capitalism in the 16th C Europe o Argued that many Catholic countries (France/Italy) were doing better than the Protestant ones (Britain), his theory is discarded as a grand theory (can’t be generalized) - values can affect economic development yet exceptions to this, Weber said that it was a Eurocentric view (only applied to Europe), but what about Japan Japan - Poor economy until 1885, then one of most prosperous nations in world (less than a C later) - Self-righteous egocentric calculation - drew on group responsibility, company loyalty, interpersonal trust and implicit contracts guiding individual conduct - Weber said you needed to invest capital and that investment should not be used on consumption but used to grow your money - very different from Japan - Some traced roots of Japanese ethos to special history (feudal system), others emphasized contribution of Confucian ethics and Samurai code of honour, some said it was the contribution of education and pedagogy - Education – state sponsored (focus on K and PK institutions – strict and focus) – link with Germany and Italy o Education system created bureaucrats, cooperative values, trustful – served well in period of breakthrough – now no growth (for 23 years lots of debt) -moral hazard in corruption/inefficiency of the banking system - Critics of Cultural Explanation – if moral hazard so important now, where was it earlier? o Sen argues maybe Japanese values have changed a little but same ethical values have different pay offs/penalties in a substantially altered world - competition determines economic process now - Japanese people are not competitive because they valued cooperation and trust - Liberal Democratic Party (1955-2009) - main platform to spend/create growth- forced banks to have debt, shuffled debt to different banks, people held money to buy things cheaper later, core consumer prices constantly fell - Crisis in demographic transition – lots of old people (due to improved technology), few young people to support them, not enough people in labour force, women in labour force (lowers fertility), no immigrants - Lessons from Japanese Case: (1) Sen – values/cultural norms can be successful at one phase of development, but less
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