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Midterm 2 abbreviated lecture notes

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
Lindsay John

Soci 265 midterm (2) abbreviated notes nd Oct 22 lecture  different ways to form a state system Not only Europe had a state system  Africa, Latin America, early china  They didn’t all develop the same power as Europe o Why?  The normative element is important Africa  Lots of extremely weak states o States became strong because of war in Europe  Fiscal extraction went up with endless competition  National solidarity also came about  In Africa war “states make war, and war makes states” didn’t work o Partly because they really took to heart the norm proclaimed by the UN in 1945 of not intervening outside your own borders  Africa has quasi states o International recognition o Low levels of taxation/ state-societal engagement o Lack a sense of nationalism  Needs a place for econ dev o No strong state to create infrastructure o You need infrastructure in order to have bureaucracy, education, rules etc  These all lead to econ dev  It would be good if there were more wars in Africa o Because it would help bring states o Is this the only way to bring states o The quasi states in Africa don’t fight much  Only civil war which doesn’t help Early China state system  Didn’t lead to multipolar politics but greater war to one powerful state, to an empirical form (until 1911)  External aid can keep these states in power, so they can rule without taxing well  In what Herbst is saying about how good the nationalism of Europe was has implications o Created WW1, WW2, many genocides o To recommend this for Africa is terrifying  Can you create states in a way that is less brutal  Encouraging war in these countries might not even work o War is different now o Mostly just decentralized guerilla warfare over natural resources nowadays (diamonds) o Would only create anarchy? Steve Krasner  case for shared sovereignty  Pushed the idea that great powers should take over some of the responsibilities of the functions of weak/failed states to help them increase their development o He influenced Bush Jr policies  Normative point o Krasner likes condominia o Western experts to act in govnt and help build military power o Set up state institutions and run them o Hall doesn’t think this will ever work  Too neo-imperialistic for todays nationalism world **remember realism says if you have a state system you should expect war** Latin America Holsty analysing and anomaly  Exception to realism th o Very few marginal wars (middle 19 C)  US causes most of the wars  No war since 1941 even with lots of states  Why? And what does this mean for the future o Historically:  Many military regimes but the states are usually weak anyway  Low tax rates  Low nationalism  Top heavy states  Cant organize soci without govnt workers at bottom level th  Why so little war in 20 C and before? o Geography  after many disease deaths military power concentrated on internal control instead of external o Dev model  Marxist  you centralize by moving peasants into cities  Durkheim (turkey)  education and secularism  Compte (brazil)  military organizes soci  other things about Lat Am (kind of) o nations states come after the collapse of empires o first wave of this was in Lat Am (kind of)  Small upper class that was all white people  They get slaughtered in Haiti o Presence of external actors  British and US both provide mediation  Gun boat diplomacy  Lend money  When they go to war they don’t tax more to create stronger state but merely borrow to fun the war  Therefore war doesn’t create stronger state  wont help  Holsti says that latin American states are now getting stronger without war and are revealing a different path o They are becoming richer  This is slightly true in Africa as well  Not only because of resources  Tax revenue  infrastructure  part of this is china help o Military route is being discredited  Proved wrong a bunch of times (malvenus war)  Econ change has been made to look attractive in contrast  Brazil tried to close the wealth gap (sociologist prez) o Piece by piece LA states are deving infrastructure  Lat Am new challenges o Drugs  A demand in US means there will always be a supply  Wreaks havoc on the Columbian and Mexican econ system o Nationalism arising for the first time  Used to be simply anti imperialism not national identity  Starting to create conflict and tension against the Spanish elit that live there Conclusion about Europe state building  Some state systems don’t don’t create war so realism doesn’t tell you everything  Don’t recommend war in these systems  Why did competition of states lead to strong states in Europe and not an empire or anarchy? o Some special conditions  Feudalism  protection contracts, power spread so king benefited from talking to people How to build states now?  The national question o Europe did it with population transfer and huge ethnic cleansing o But other parts now are hugely multi ethnic and multi national so how without a massive bloodbath?  How do you get path the language question?e October 24 lecture  ethnic conflict (civil) What do we mean by ethnicity?  Done against an ethnicity  Done in the name of an ethnicity  These two will be different  Ethnicity is descent based groups bigger than just the family (culture, language, looks) What is common in civil conflict  Ethnic, revolutionary, or resource based?  Regardless it is usually greed based (need land, food, things)  It is also often related to low gdp  taking arms is econ beneficial  High correlation between easily captural resources/low gdp per capital and civil conflict Ethnic polarization theory exists as well though  Normally ethnic diversity doesn’t mean anything  But sometimes when there are certain poli arrangements that exclude others you can have conflict  Ethnic exclusion explains ethnic conflict  3 types are most correlated o Incohesive states short periods of direct rule (creates successionist conflict) o Armed rebellion  when there is high ethnic exclusion o In fighting  segmented states where different elites are fighting within the country Where do ethnicities/ethnic boundaries come from?  Two nationalistic theories o Primordialists  there is a natural/bio root of ethnicities, they have always been there o Modernists even if they were there before they haven’t meant anything until modern times (partially constructed for functional reasons) Ethnic breaks out usually because there is a dominant one and I repressed one  Its very interlinked with how ethnic identity takes shape  Identity formation and ethnic con breakout** Conflict comes when there are more nationalisms then there are states, right? o Lots of different groups want there more states but there aren’t enough of them  This theory has come under a lot of attack  How does the number of ethnic groups vary?  Currently about 5000 ethnicities/300 states o Nigeria tried to put in place a system that accomadated this and all of a sudden a bunch of new ethnicities popped up Floral language acquisition model  If there is a central ethnicity with a language and a regional ethnicity with another language  There are a bunch of things that mediate the periphery and the center o Translators, bureaucracy etc  Elites can usually take advantage of this because they are usually the bi lingual ones o Encourages the peasants to assimilate o Encourages the elites to keep this gap Tipping gain/model  If you’re a revolutionary you don’t try to revolt if there
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