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SOCI 390 (2)


25 Pages

Sociology (Arts)
Course Code
SOCI 390
Sarah Berry

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SOCI390FinalGenderDivisionofLabourandHealthCare Early Medical TraditionsAboriginals had wide range of health care practices medical practitioners treatments plans spirituals leadersoSerious problems seen as due to moral regression ex Spruce Barkvitamin C and scurvy European intrusiontraditions lost never written downoLay healerseveryday people offering a serviceoHome remediesplasters teas produced at home sometimes in larger forms to be soldcirculatedoBarbersurgeonssurgery on outside of body ex stiches removing teethdangerous due to infectionEarly attempts to organize19th Ctension among practitionerswanted to gain monopolyover certain groupsideasHomeopathic practitionersfirst legally recognized in Canada first to have board and licensing exam 1859Allopathic practitioners denounced homeopathic providers as frauds threats to scienceProfessionalization and MedicineSelfregulatory licensing professional recognition 1869College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario3 types of medical education apprenticeship proprietary schools university Push for evaluation of medical schoolsstandardization Flexner Report 1910establishment of biomedicineaffected face of medicine and who could practice oRecommendationCurriculum4 yearsstandardized as best as possible across all schools Facultyfull time better laboratory instruction more investment in research funding schoolsTraining systemintegrated within university systemseasier to standardizerecognizeResearchstandardized medical training alignment with scienceoEffectsSchool closures 12 shut downrural areas underfunded became exclusionary ex minoritiesPrice and accessexclusionary Face of medicinediverse to much more homogenous white upper class menOrganizational changesself regulation medicine as standardized professionTerence Johnson 1972factors that determine power of professional groupoEsoteric knowledgebody of knowledge as difficult to understandaccessnow internet genderedoSocial Distancesetting profession apart class differences specifically oHomogeneityif all same increase social difference and power easier to organizeprotect interests Medicine Today practice and issues4 main types of practice solo practices selfemployed private practices artnership practices 2 or more physicians group practices sub practitioners employed by governmentuniversitieshospitals etcMost are not salary fee for serviceprovinces responsible for reimbursement Gender and the division of Labour in Health CarePhysicianssince 1996 women outnumbered men in representation of medical professionalsoWomen are GP primary care practitioners men are in surgical specialtiesmore money management 80 of health care professional workers are women 878 nurses 100 midwives most unpaidhomecare Nursing in Canada17th CAugustine Nuns from France to Quebecmedical mission Catholicprovide basic care be with individuals while they are sick and promote religious beliefsClose ties to Christianitycare for spirituals need church authority selection of patients ex unwed momsoSeen as unskilled work care they were providing was a natural extension as their role as women caring Florence Nightingale 18201910trained in Germanyaimed to produce respectable professionoOnly higher upper class women to improve imagebut those women were fragile sensitive to nudity Crimean War mid 19th COrganized group of nursessubservient to physicians ordershelpersNurses as extension of good moms caring nurturing and good housekeepers basic hygiene cleaning oExtensions of physiciansnever move up or over take physiciansmedicinenever be a part of medicine oWeakened efforts at professionalization at same level as medicine stNightingale Model adopted in Canada1 training 1874oAuxiliary occupationprimary focus on caring not curing not on treatmentsoReproduced patriarchymale doctors play fatherly role leadership vs female nursesWork of nurses expanded but also exploitedoHospital schools started and relied on cheapfree labour of nursesapprenticeship worktrain not paidoHigh number of tasks without authority or benefitno time for other paid work Lots of surveillance long hours strict discipline not paid stressfulContemporary contextStandardization of education and training degree university 35 and diploma training 13 years oFragmentationnurses performing same thing but different education diploma trainingits cheaper oAsymmetrical accessdiploma you hit a ceiling degree you can move into positions of leadershipoBarriers to changeMedical monopolizationphysicians opposed ex nurse practitionersthreat to authorityPreference for individuals who can perform same work but for lower costs Nurses have rigid work hours engage in shift work requirements to do nightevening and part time sometimes lack of benefits restrictions on place of work nursing home vs hospitalOccupational ghetto or pinkcollar ghettoconcentration of women in occupation categories carrying low prestige earnings authority and mobility without a lot of benefits Consequences of being in ghettooIncrease stress and job strain higher demand expectationsoReinforced through pop representations of nursingcare work ex films and other media representations
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