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SOCI 386 Study Guide - Final Guide: Corporatism, Earth Summit, Indian Act

Sociology (Arts)
Course Code
SOCI 386
Anahi Hudon Morales
Study Guide

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Women’s Movement
What is the women’s movement vs. feminist movement?
- Extra-institutional (grassroots, autonomous, localized), common beliefs - collective challenge to
authority, challenging institutions/laws, redefining cultural norms, beliefs and categories (ex. abortion),
cultural activities
- Women = constituency – mobilize together - specific identities/demands, organized different depending
on context, gendered access to resources (ex. political opportunities)
- Successful because women aren’t taken seriously ex. Mothers of the Place of May – disappearance of
sons and daughters in Argentina under military regime – government accepted their protest
- Not new – organizing since1800s - ex. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
(1791) – De Gouges – argued for equality, ex. Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) –
Wollstonecraft – subordination due to lack of education
- Feminist movement – challenges gender relations – goal of changing women’s subordination and
What are the main goals of the women’s movement?
- Women’s Rights – employment, professional women participation, formal structure of representation
(unions), decision making in bureaucratic – traditional forms of activism (marches, pressure on
oEx. National Action Committee on the Status of Women (1971) – pressure group, lobbying
techniques to pressure government to implement recommendations from royal commission
- Women’s Liberation – sexuality, health, autonomy (young/students) – informal structures, participatory
democracy, collective experience
What is wrong with the category of women?
- Reductionist and restrictive - doesn’t recognize diverse gender relations of power - homogenizing
- “women” as white middle class women – their experiences different from lower, minority women
- Intersectionality (sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, class) – within women and groups
oMultiple allegiances – can’t have both demands (gender and class) – one as 2nd, refusing to
oHierarchy and marginalization – assumption of common interests
oPolitical opportunities, resources, frames – how it is shaped by structural inequalities
oInformal power within participatory democracy – how speaks for the whole, has access to
Waves – useful because one of the longest movements, different cycles of protest, see demands change
- Consequence of thinking in terms of waves: linearity – not everything is straight forward, linear and
- Continuations, rather than waves – change in terms of visibility – new feminist identities, always there
- Snow – not declining but changing – challenging different systems of authority( ex. state and culture,
gender norms, roles, values, economic system), visibility – different tactics may not be visible but can
still exist
- Redeployment rather than decline – organization disappear so others can emerge – spill over

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Feminism – change women’s subordination to men, challenge public/private divide, patriarchy as social/power
- Liberal (1st wave) – gaining political and civil rights against discrimination
oWomen couldn’t sign legal things, no divorce, must follow nuclear family norms – discrimination
oSuffrage = main issues – equality in politics – voting and property rights (women as key actors
oTactics: strikes, parades, petitioning, lobbying, hunger strikes, picketing
oGains: depending on context
- Marxist – women’s liberation will come from liberation from capitalism
- Radical (2nd wave) – patriarchy as system of power organizing society on male supremacy/oppression
of women
oFocus on sexuality, family, workplace, reproductive rights, violence against women, equal
oTactics: protests, marches, lobbying, direct actions, consciousness raising groups
oGains: recognition that women faced discrimination at different levels/spheres, anti-
discrimination policies ex. birth control (1969), greater political participation
- 3rd Wave (1990s-2000s)
oIndividual and personal interests (less visible than 2nd wave i.e. tactics – less marches – see
alternative media ex. internet, more artistic and performances ex. Vagina Monologues
oIntegration and inclusion (Intersectionality) – groups more diverse
Post WW2 (1950s-1970s) = structural changes, new and persistent grievances
- Relative deprivation compared to men – more jobs, less pay, labour as supplementary (double day)
- Feminine Mystique (Friedan) – women frustrated because they expected nuclear family to be great and
fulfilling, but many contradictions that influence how women though about their condition
- Intersectional analysis (Roth, 2004) – race, ethnicity, class, gender) – social divisions – unequal
resources, privileges, opportunities – causes difficult organizing
oBlack feminists – challenged black movement and feminist movement
oChicana feminists – Mexican American – challenge family roles, change to issues of sexuality
Shifts in political opportunity structures
- Tactics – took from student movement, participatory democracy
- Electorally – new channels to voice demands/pressure authorities (political party majority, political
- Recognition ex. US – need to address sex discrimination ex. 1961 Presidential Commission on Status
of Women and 1964 Civil Rights Act ex. CAN – 1967 Royal Commission on the Status of Women
- Framing women’s rights as human rights in UN World Women’s Conferences (1975-1985)
- Conservative Political Context
oLess favourable to women’s movement – decrease funding to women’s group, pressure against
groups challenging traditional family values, promotion of conservative values ex. Mulroney
oRise of anti-feminist, anti-choice movements, anti-gay – promoted by church and government
Ambiguous legacy of previous movements
- Forms of organization – formal and participatory – organizational changes
- Inability to make changes that led women to becoming a more autonomous group
- Public funding required accountability

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- Tension between founding members and new comers (insiders vs. outsiders) – three major obstacles
o(1) Hard to bring in new members (2) Lack of diversity – invite people similar to you (shared
identity) (3) Friendships – how to voice disagreement
-Personal is political (Polleta) – analysis of friendship and dynamics within women’s movement
liberation groups
oSisterhood vs. friendship - problematic to just think about identity
Lesbian Organizing and Visibility in Argentina (Moreau) – women’s movement in LA * lesbian groups
separate (if at all)
- (1) Human rights (state abuse) (2) Community (econ sustainability) ex. soup kitchens (3) Feminist –
- Ex. La Fulana – situated in LGBT movement – thought feminist groups excluded trans women
- Objectives: awareness, lesbian visibility i.e. organizational (support, media), social/political inclusion,
- Themes: openness, social critique (nothing wrong with being lesbian), community – anti prejudice
- Women’s movement is historically/geographically specific - “woman” socially constructed, defined by
Staggenborg Social Movements
- Emerged as large scale changes associated with industrialization changed women’s role in family –
higher education, social reforms (temperance, abolition), gained political experience – feel limits of their
poli influence
- 1st wave advocated women’s suffrage, education, property and custody rights
oCanada women won the vote in 1918 (QC not until 1940)
- National Women’s Party, maintained feminist movement between suffrage victory in 1920 and 1960s
- Increases in women’s labour force participation/higher education, decline in birth rate, increased
divorce rates created new interests and grievances – ex. employment discrimination (relative
- Contemporary women’s movement – two distinct branches:
oOlder/women’s right branch – professional, concerned with employment issues – formed earlier
ex. National Organization for Women (NOW)
oYounger/women’s liberation branch – students – women’s health, sexuality – informal
organizations, participatory democracy, previous movements provided organizational base and
- Mobilizing issues
oWomen’s health/reproductive rights: before 2nd wave, little information available, give women
control of their bodies
oViolence against women – bringing key issues of rape and domestic violence to public attention
- New wave of feminist activity (1980s) - assentation of feminist identity among young women – young
feminists were declaring their generational/ideological differences from 2nd wave – 3rd wave created new
organizations/ activities ex. Vagina Monologues
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