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Midterm Review- Terms.docx

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Karen Slonim

Midterm Review- Important Terms Introduction to Anthropology (Chapter 1) Anthropology: the study of humanity, including the prehistoric origins of humans and contemporary biological, cultural, and linguistic variation. Fossil: the preserved remains of a plant or animal of the past, usually a bone, a tooth, or an impression such as a footprint or leaf impression. Paleoanthropology: the study of human evolution through the analysis of fossil remains. Primotology: the study of primates. Primates: the order of mammals that includes prosimians and anthropoids (monkeys, apes, humans). Archaeology: the study of past human cultures through their material remains. Artifacts: portable object made or modified by humans. Middens: ancient dumps or trash heaps. Ethnoarchaeology: the study of material artifacts of the past along with the observation of modern peoples who have knowledge of the use and symbolic meaning of those artifacts. Linguistics: the study of language. Linguistic anthropology: the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change. Structural Linguistics: an area of research that investigates the structure of language patterns as they presently exist. Sociolinguistics: a theory in linguistic anthropology that says that culture and society and a person’s social position determine language. Historical Linguistics: the study of language change using formal methods that compare shifts over time and across space in aspects of language such as phonetics, syntax, and semantics. Cultural Anthropology: the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change. Ethnology: the subfield of anthropology that focuses on the cross-cultural aspects of ethnographic studies. Participant Observation: a method of studying contemporary humans in which the researcher lives with and studies the people for an extended period of time. Ethnography: a book-length description of a culture or cultures based on extended fieldwork among living people. Ethnologist: an anthropologist who focuses on the cross-cultural aspects of ethnographic studies. Applied Anthropology: the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems and to shape or achieve policy goals. Also called practicing anthropology or practical anthropology. Holistic: a broad, comprehensive approach to the study of humankind drawing on the four subfields of anthropology and integrating both biological and cultural phenomena. Ethnocentrism: judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture rather than by the standards of the other culture, usually resulting in a negative view of the other culture. Scientific Method: a form of knowledge-seeking that entails making observations, formulating an explanatory hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and confirming, amending, or rejecting the hypothesis. Testability and verifiability lie at the core of the scientific method. Inductive method: a method of investigation in which a scientist first makes observations and collects data and then, formulates a hypothesis. Deductive method: a method of investigation in which the scientist begins with a general theory, develops specific hypothesis and then tests them. Hypothesis: a testable proposition concerning the relationship between different sets of variables within the collected data. Theories: interconnected hypotheses that offer general explanations of natural or social phenomena. Variable: a datum that varies from case to case. Ethnopoetics: the study of the poetry traditions and practices in different societies. Ethnomusicology: the cross-cultural study of music. Oral traditions: Physical (or biological) anthropology: involves the study of human biological evolution and the variations among different living populations. Cultural Anthropology: the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change. Social anthropologist: analyze social organization, ways in which people organize themselves. Linguistic Anthropologist: study human languages, a field of research that is sometimes important to the study of the past. Cultural Resource Management (CRM): type of archaeology concerned with the management and assessment of the significance of cultural resources such as archaeological sites. Sex and Gender Sex: biological differences between males and females. Gender: culturally constructed and learned behaviours and ideas associated with masculinity, femininity, or a “third”, or blended gender. Gender is contrasted to sex, which uses biological markers to define categories of male and female. Gender Construct (gender model): the set of cultural assumptions about gender roles and values and the relations between the genders that people learn as members of their societies. Transvestism: dressing in the clothes usually worn by members of the opposite gender. Gender roles: constellations of rights, duties, attitudes, and behaviours that are culturally associated with each gender. Gender relations: norms of interaction between men and women, which may reflect differences in the relative status, prestige, and power of women and men. Gender equality: a constellation of behaviours, attitudes and rights that support the autonomy of both women and men. Gender inequality: the denial of autonomy and equal rights to one group of people based on their gender. Male dominance: a constellation of behaviours and attitudes that grant men access to roles of prestige and reward and deny the same to women. Social Reproduction: the care and sustenance of people who will be able to contribute productively to society. “Man the Hunter” th  First become popular in the 19 century- reflected on views apparent in Europe at the time  CHARLES DARWIN  Key to human development that separates us from other primates  The model is the primary actor in human origins and agent cultural innovation and progress is a projection backward into history and prehistory of contemporary constructs of gender  Based on questionable assumptions o The association of tools and animal bones have led some researchers to emphasize the significance of meat  hunting o No clear evidence supports the assumptions about the importance of meat in the diet of early hominids  Emphasizes male dominance behaviour o Seen as protectors of family  impossible to verify Two-Spirits: in Native American societies, males who adopted some of the social and economic roles of women, and females who adopted some of the social and economic roles of men. Berdache: a blurred gender category, usually referring to a person who is biologically male but who assumes a female gender role. (misused term by North Americans, derogatory) Two-Spirits: A third gender (pg.45-47)  Concept: separating the social being (gender category) from the biological body (sex)  Distinct gender category  Well established in most of North America  Least likely in societies that relied on hunting  Became two-spirits as a result of person inclination, spiritual calling (vision or dream)  extraordinary powers to heal and foretell the future, or parental selection.  Typically performed economic duties appropriate to the opposite sex o Ability to perform work of both genders  economic advantage o Adjusted clothing based on work (male or female work)  Wore clothes and hair style associated with chosen social role  Sexual encounters and marriage took place with the opposite social gender o Highly desired mates  prosperity, productive skills, and spiritual knowledge. o Little difficulty marrying and establishing successfu
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