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Anthro Exam Review (Final).docx

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McMaster University
Tracy Prowse

Anthro Exam Review CHAPTER ONE: INTRO TO ANTHRO Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind  Historical Anthropology: o How did we evolve as humans? o What forces have shaped us over time?  Comparative Anthropology: o What do we all have in common? o How do we differ? o What are the reasons for differences?  Contextual Anthropology: o What circumstances, environments and beliefs have shaped human behavior and understanding?  Holistic Anthropology: o How can we understand the picture of human condition, both biological and cultural? Subfields of Anthropology (pg 2):  Physical: o Studies all aspects of the biology and behavior of human species o Subfields:  Osteology: the study of the skeleton, structure and function  Understanding the changes in fossils, adaptations  Paleoanthropology: the study of human fossil records  What does it mean to be human?  Primatology: study of primates and morphological characteristics to determine evolution o Can be useful in police investigations with the skeletons of murders  Archaeology: o Study of past societies and their cultures using material remains (tools, ceramics, sites, etc.)  Prehistoric: artifacts of first humans  Historical: artifacts of most recent past  Classical: ancient civilizations  Ethnoarcheaology: artifacts of the past and information on modern users who understand the use and symbolism of the artifacts o Used in preserving threatened sites from housing and roads  Linguistic: o Studies the construction and use of language by human societies  Structural: how language works  Sociolinguistics: relationship between language and social behavior in cultures o Used in government agencies to document missing languages and marketing  Cultural: o Study of contemporary cultures and societies o Culture is a transmitted and learned behavior  Methodology: participant observation: learn culture and language by participating in daily activities  Ethnography: description of culture within society o Used in government programs to take cultural beliefs and needs into consideration o Related to sociology, psychology, economics and political 2science NOTE:  No anthropologist is an expert at all four subfields  Holistic approach: understanding all four subfields  Research crosses over subfields (interdisciplinary)  Focuses on diversity of humans in all contests  Humans are cultural and biological Ethnocentrism:  Popular perceptions about other cultures based on values and standards of ones society  Members of one culture become so accustomed to their beliefs that any other cultural tradition is bizarre  Anthropological interpretations are evaluated several ways o The scientific method: a system of logic used to evaluate data derived from systematic observation o Inductive method: make observations and collect data (variables such as height and weight  Hypothesis: testable proposition concerning relationship between variables  Theories: statements explaining and verifying hypotheses o Deductive method: a general theory which scientist develop testable hypotheses Anthropology and Humanities: o Humanistic approach to anthropology determines symbolism and representations of the world o Cultural and archaeological anthropologists use this method to understand practices or institutions within a society o Ethno poetics: study of poetry and how it relates to the experiences of people in different societies o Ethnomusicology: musical traditions Why Study Anthro? o Being exposed to different societies allow us to adapt to others cultures o Cross-cultural perspective allowing us to see ourselves as apart of one human family o Understand human evolution and development for self-awareness Archeology and Prehistory o 7000 BC foragers prepared flints and left remains back to be discovered by Daniel Cahen who noted that one was left handed o Collectors and treasure hunters who collect endangered, finite resource that are rapidly vanishing are performing and irreversible act o modern archaeology is the systematic study of humanity in the past Who owns the past? o There is no monopoly on history o Many civilizations believe that the world had not changed, instead there were time spans specific to certain behaviors and memories o Oral traditions: transmitting knowledge and history orally What do archaeologists do? o Study of past societies, ancient and relatively modern meaning they cannot speak to their informants o Link material remains to human behavior and change over time o Cultural resource management is a type of archaeology concerned with specific sites o Work for museums, federal, state, governments, private consulting o It is now a profession of specialists o Prehistoric: from earliest humans to frontiers  Paleoanthropology: culture and artifacts of the earliest humans of stone technology, art, hunter-gathers o Classical: remains of classical civilizations of Greece and Rome o Biblical: link biblical data with archaeology o Egyptologists: require unusual skills for specific time periods o Historical: problems from periods existing within written records o Underwater, industrial o Paloeethnobotanists: study ancient food remains o Zooarchaeologists: specialize in animal bones Why do archaeologists matter?  archaeology is part of pop culture to learn about the interesting past  pseudoarchaeology: using archaeological finds to tell a story about the past and avoid the science and theories behind the symbolism  major educational weapon to bring diversity to the world  after the first Ice Age the first humans migrated out of Africa and stemmed into biological and cultural diversity of modern humankind, art, urban and village civilization  Political tool: governments use the past to justify the present civilizations o ex: the Aztecs became the rulers of a vast empire starting from farming and can now claim their land  use scientific and political methods  economic development: how high yields can be made without fertilizers and expenses  garbology: tells us about the discard habits of modern industrial society Prehistory of humankind according to archaeologists  more than 2.5 mya starting with fist tool making hominines in East Africa  early prehistory: 2.5 mya – 200 000 ya, tool making to modern humans o 1.8 mya humans spread to more temperate areas, Europe and Asia for heat and protection o homo erectus populations evolved into Homo sapiens in Eurasia  origins and spread of modern humans: 200 000 ya o modern humans evolved in woodlands of eastern and southern Africa o 100 000 ya into Asia o after Ice Age humans crossed into Australia (45 000 ya) o 15 000 ya into Alaska and Americas leaving only offshore islands of Pacific uninhabited  origins of food production: 15000 ya o thawing of Ice Age lead to climate changes o 10000 BC hunter gathers cultivated wild wheats and barley in response to drought, as a result farmers were flourishing o herding of goats and pigs replaced hunting o plant and animal domestication developed in India, Asia, China o plants and cereals began in Americas by 4000 BC  origins of states: 3000 BC o centralized societies appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia  European expansion: final chapter o Expansion of Western civilization outward from its European homeland 1430 AD Thinking Holistically:  Holism: study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, science, language and culture o Interconnection of subdisciplines o Framework to determine how varied aspects of human life are interdependent and culture integrated o Imbalance of birth rates in China is an example of interrelationship of politics, economics, kinship, law, family  Connections with subfields: o Archaeology connects:  Archaeologist reconstruct behavior through their study of material remains and ways of life that are no longer observable  Cultural anthropologist provide wealth of people  Archaeologist can determine whether populations were hunter-gathers or if they were left handed and cultural information is used to determine diets, household items and population size  Biological anthropologists work with archaeologists to reveal human past and ancestry using DNA and archaeology uses artifacts  Connects with language to determine how populations commutated to use and make artifacts o Linguistic connects:  Through language we can learn about culture  Language dictates gender roles and behaviors  Historical linguistics can document change and spread of cultural material  Biological anthropologists are interested in the development of human language in the brain and speech o Biological connects:  Cultural changes such as anatomical aspects and technology had caused evolution of humans through natural selection  Improved sanitation, immunization, insect control and antibiotics are cultural innovations that allowed humans to evolve o Cultural Connects:  Culture acts on biological laws, environmental forces  Sickle cell anemia was spread through mosquitoes which were breed from ecological changes  Took culture, biology, language, and anthropologists to understand Chapter 2: SEX AND GENDER  Gender: roles that people perform in their communities and the values and attitudes that people have regarding men and women, cultural category  Sex: biological category, varying in their products  gender identity: how people enact expectations with their gender category  gender construct: cultural assumptions about gender roles engrained in early experiences  evolutionary perspective: DNA evidence suggest divergence of humans and nonhumans was result of climatic changes o skeletal features distinguish hominid males and females o females pelvic size and physical structure (bipedalism)earliest was a result of giving birth and caregiving o men were assumed to hunt, gather and feed the family o earliest tools were used to dig for plants o teeth evolved based on the diet o females preferred healthy, sociable, friendly and caring males  cultural construct of gender identity: o primary aspect of personal and social identity o models of behaviors and attitudes that a particular culture transmits to its members o cultures use appropriate naming for males and females o ideology of men and women can be conveyed through religious beliefs, practices, language, daily interactions and activities o gender identify can be signaled by differences in body adornments such as clothing and hair styles  gender and sexuality: o culture determines appropriate partners, ages and practices o laws are withheld on ages of sex and premarital sex  gender and homosexuality: o US bans homosexuality, whereas India sees it as an expression of human desire o ‘hirjas’: neither man nor woman o two spirits: a third gender  separating a social being based on gender category from the biological body the facts of sex  become two-spirits as a result of personal inclination to favor one gender  some females are trained with male roles if no sons were born  females were pierced like men rather than tattooed like women  men have to dance and bathe and are given a womans shirt  ability to perform men and women tasks was an economic advantage  men have a spirit essence called ‘hame’ that is limited and can be depleted by heterosexual intercourse but acquired through ingestion of semen  women also have hame and must ingest menstrual blood to initiate reproductive capacity  Gender Roles: tasks and positions for men and women within a community  Gender relations: interactions between men and women reflective social status o Men and women have equally valued roles, but some societies men are superior  Division of Labour: o Men and women work is complimentary o occurred when people began to engage in specialized economic techniques requiring more complex skills o Women’s ability to travel is limited by reproductive functions o Different tasks require different amounts of energy and can be affected by age o Women gather wild plants, fruits, nuts and men hunt and trade o Protecting women from danger to reproduce is adaptive causing women to be less mobile o created to economically sustain a household o Work roles are inherently appropriate for men and women  Gender equality: constellations of behaviors, attitudes and rights that support the autonomy of men and women  Gender inequality: denial of autonomy of people based on gender o male dominance disvalues women’s rights o women’s lives are domestic and men are public o Ethiopia has ‘zar’ beliefs that allow women to be removed from husband o Social, political and leadership affect gender status  Foragers and gender: o Women and mens contributions are usually equal and overlapped o Ju/’hosani and Inuit o Relationships were autonomous, divorce rates were high o Ju/’hosani: women gather nuts, plants and roots that account for 70% of the peoples yearly caloric intake making women’s status much higher than men  Men and women were rewarded based on their contributions o Inuit diet consisted of meat and fish hunted by men  Men separated from women to hunt, their roles were much harder facing larger animals, wife beating was common  Pastoral gender: o Patriarchal social and political organization o Men control herds, Maasai, to be a pastoralist o Women took care of cattle and men herded the cattle o Men made most trades but women could participate o But British saw that men traded the cattle, diminishing women roles, increasing men’s economic and political centrality  Gender in Horticulture: o Control over distribution of produce and goods influences gender status o Iroquoian women make most decisions, gather more and bear children o Women were mostly responsible for distribution of food and public feasts, trading and hunting for men o Matrilineal clans, elder women, monogamous marriages, violence was unheard of o Igbo was patrilineal and men made most decisions, but women were economically and socially benefited by trading o Tradeswomen are autonomous and strong o Yanomamo society’s are male dominated  Gender in Agriculture: o Male dominance is dependent on economic, political, historical, kinship, marriage and family factors  Gender gap: differential of pay caused by separation of work  Cult of domesticity: separate roles and domains are appropriate for men and women o Women fought for their rights to participate in labour jobs to maintain a high social standard  women’s roles in urban and rural economic development: o Malaysia, sinapore, Taiwan, national and multination corporations employ women increasing the labour forces amoung them o This gives them greater economic status and independence  Women in changing socialist states: o Although women and men have comparable occupations women are often paid less o Womens unemployment rates increased due to the increase in pressure of women to become full-time mothers and housewives  Gender and Ideology: o Mothers were to devote their lives to their children o Men are no longer sole supporters of families o Ideologies create and change gender roles to be acceptable Sexuality:  Premarital sex: o Varies between societies o Indians believe girls should not encourage boys once menstruation begins  Sex in marriage: o Bolivia prefers to have sex outside at night o India believes a child born at night will be blind o Frequent marital sex is good, but frequent sex is weak  Extramarital sex: o Allowed more for men, but usually inappropriate  Homosexuality: o People of the same biological sex o Papago could only participate in homosexuality at night o Siwans expected males to participate in homosexual relations o Population pressure has made homosexuality more accepted Gender: Men and Women Gender is not the same as sex  Sex — refers to the biological male or female  Gender — socially and culturally constructed roles o Vital part of human social relations Archaeology of Gender — deals with the ideology of gender, with roles and gender Relations — the ways in which gender intersects with all aspects of human social life Engendered Research  Use a wide diversity of archaeological methods and approaches to find out how gender worked in ancient societies  Focus not only on material achievements (metallurgy, potmaking) but interpersonal relations and social dynamics of everyday life o Hunting, gardening, preparing meals Case Study: Grinding Grain at Abu Hureyra, Syria  Earliest known agricultural settlement in the world (10, 000 BC)  Bone deformation caused by arduous and repetitive tasks o Kneeling on the ground while grinding grain Role of Women in Aztec civilization  Skilled weavers, artisans, good cooks  Were valuable to the nation as a whole o Population of valley of mexico rose tenfold during the 4 centuries before conquest o Cooking & weaving were ways of maintaining social and political control  No example is given how, seems dumb as fuck Chapter 2 Summary Sex and Gender  Gender is a cultural construct that assigns an identity and appropriate roles to people based on sexual differences/cultural beliefs about sex and behaviour  Cultures vary in roles that men and women perform o Roles learned through earliest socialization in infancy through their childhood  Most cultures organize concepts of gender into dual division of man and woman o However some cultures allow males and females to identify as a third gender  Cultures shape sexual feelings and practices Gender Roles and Gender Relations  Gender influences work o Ex. Women always care for young children and perform housework o Ex. Men always hunt and go to war  Gender equality is found in foraging societies o All individuals contribute to subsistence  Other societies are male-dominated o Tends to occur in agricultural states Gender and Subsistence  Egalitarian relationships develop among foragers and in industrial/post-industrial societies Chapter 3 Food & Nutrition Survival was the driving force that determined what was eaten  No country for picky-eaters Agricultural Developments  Civilizations that flourished in river valleys were able to grow wheat/cereal/other crops *see text page 98 for chart re: food by hemisphere of origin* Influences determining Diets Geography  Topography (geographic dimension) was crucial o Mountainous regions did not lend themselves to agriculture (rough terrain and high elevation)  Places like the Alps, Himalayas were uninhabitable o Lower valleys could be manipulated to produce crops  Ex. Terracing found in Asia  Ancient civilization of Mesopotamia survived because they chose good land o Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers  Dubbed “The Fertile Crescent” Environmental Factors Water  Adequate moisture is needed for a crop to survive o Areas like Northern Asia and were dry  Adjusted by growing rice rather than grains like wheat  Irrigation systems were useful o Developed around 5000 BCE so crops could be watered Growing Conditions  Temperature was key to a crop’s success o Ex. Citrus fruits not able to grow in Norse regions; too cold  Must have enough warm days o Ex. Corn requires 140 days to mature Today’s World Food Scene Economics  Poverty prevents many from getting enough food o Can’t put enough food on the table  Micro-loans are being given to small businesses o This helps them provide for their families th Special Connotations of Food (see note from Oct 5 on Cultural Meanings of Food) Salt  Simple part of many diets o Ex. Roman armies had people responsible for making salt  Even used as currency o Tibet 1300 CE  Specialty salts like grey salt from France Eggs  Pagans considered them to be a symbol of fertility  Christians associate eggs with Easter Subsistence Patterns- methods of obtaining food  Two basic methods include finding food (foraging/hunting/ gathering) or growing food (food production) Foragers- hunter-gatherers (humanity’s only subsistence pattern until 10,000 YA) Pastoralism- raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals as primary Subsistence Horticulture- small-scale farming using simple technology Agriculture- intensive farming techniques using industrial processes Carrying Capacity- number of people who can be sustained by the resources in the environment in which they live (not a fixed number; varies with things such as subsistence techniques, labour expenditure, and technological development) Settlement Pattern – the way people distribute themselves in their environment: location of dwellings, permanence of these dwellings Settlement Patterns • Foragers ◦ small, temporary settlements • Agriculturalists ◦ larger, permanent settlements Population • numbers, density ◦ ex. Catalhoyuk (people basically living on top of each other Divisions of labour • foraging societies ◦ egalitarian practices; males and females equal work • agricultural societies ◦ greater divide of labour between genders/age groups Foragers Population factors • strategies to curb population ◦ in order to keep from eating themselves out of an area Social and Cultural Factors • little property • communal sharing- "Hxaro" Land, Labour, and Production • open access to all resources ◦ allocated certain key resources to specific groups ex. water amongst the Ju/'hoansi Pastoralism Population Factors • size and density varies Combined Subsistence Strategies • eg. with foraging or small-scale farming Land and Labour • Ownership and control of resources/territories • division of labour ◦ males= take care of cattle, females= goats Pastoralist Case Study: The basseri, Iran Horticulture (small-scale farming) • impact of sedentism and surpluses ◦ large surplus=larger population • control population in order to keep resources high ◦ Sexual abstinence, lengthy periods of breast-feeding, contraceptives etc. • Slash and Burn ◦ plant/burn/rotate • Division of Labour ◦ Men did heavy work (clearing forests and woodlands to make new fields) * Case study: Zuni (New Mexico) * Agriculture  Large populations Agriculture and Animal Domestication  For more than 90% of our existence we were hunter and gatherers. Food Production: The deliberate cultivation of cereal grasses and edible root plans; a phenomenon of the last 12,000 years of existence.  Responsible for the rapidly accelerating population growth and culture change in the past 10 millennia. The Theories About the Origins of Food Production Early Hypothesis  Vere Gordon Childe: Theory of the “Neolithic Revolution”  Economic Revolution in prehistory in Southwest Asia during a period of severe drought.  Caused a symbiotic relationship between animals and humans that ensured a richer and more reliable food source for people.  Based on inadequate archaeological and environmental data. Multivariate Theories  Early hunter-gatherer societies were well preadapted to food production before anyone started planting wild cereal grasses or penning animals. (Ex. The Kumeyaay Indians of southern California) Population Pressure  Population pressure caused hunter gatherer societies to abandon gathering because their growing populations had reached the limit that their food sources could support. Social Theories  Barbara Bender  Some hunter gatherer societies were becoming more socially complex.  An expansion of trade and of political alliances between neighbouring groups created new social and economic pressures to produce more and more surplus goods. Population and Resources Theories  Ester Boserup  People respond to risks by moving, developing new food storage technologies and by drying foods.  A straightforward solution to rising populations, resulting food shortages or risk factors is to cultivate familiar plants and to domesticate common prey so that people can draw on stored resources in scarce months. Climate Change  Although never a prime theory, climate change could have had a profound effect on peoples’ choices of food and their ways of feeding themselves. Ecological Theories  Kent Flannery  People adapted to a few animals and plants and scheduled their annual round to be in the right place at the right time to harvest.  As time went on, people spent more and more time cultivating. Social Competition  Brian Hayden  People acquire status by throwing feasts which creates obligations that others are unable to match.  Hayden believes that many of the first cultivated plants were flavourings, such as chili peppers, used to impress guests. CASE STUDY: Guila Naquitz, Mexico  Kent Flannery excavated a cave that was used six times over a 2000 year period as shelter  Produced evidence for the division of labour between men and women and the domestication of a gourd by 8000 BCE  Robert Reynolds “adaptive computer simulation model”  Memories of successive generations are vital to the modification of strategies in future years. Differing Dates for Food Production  Hunter gatherers in Southwest Asia and highland Mesoamerica were beginning to manipulate potential domesticates among wild grasses and root species at the end of the Ice Age  The archaeological record shows that agriculture was established considerably earlier in subtropical Southwest Asia, Middle and South America, Southeast Asia, and India than it was in humid, tropical zones because these areas were rich in game and wild vegetables. Studying Early Food Production Flotation Method: A method of plant domestication in which soil samples pass through water and recover substantial samples of even the tiniest seeds. Scanning Electron Microscopy: Allows scientists to examine the micro morphology of tiny wild and domesticated seeds. Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late?  Once established, food production spread rapidly, partially because the resulting population growth prevented people from reverting to hunting and gathering.  The constant climate changes of the past 700,000 years must have led to conditions in some areas that presented human societies with the challenge of constant environmental change and population shifts.  Increased plant productivity resulted from higher carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere after the Ice Age Consequences of Food Production  Food production resulted in much higher population densities.  Smaller areas of land were needed by groups because they no longer had to follow the migrating herds. This led to the establishment of property lines.  Heavier toolkits and more lasting houses become the norm.  Led to a change in attitude toward the environment. Farmers altered the natural environment in ways that took years to reverse.  When people began living closer together, disease became more prominent.  Archaeologists argue that human health improved dramatically as a result of agriculture because people worked less and lived on more reliable food supplies. (However, some studies suggest that hunter gatherers worked less than farmers and had a healthier, more relaxing lifestyle) Herding: Domestication of Animals  Dogs are suspected to be among the first domesticated animals because of their use as hunting companions during the late Ice Age. The very first animals to be domesticated were goats and sheep.  The advantages to having one’s own domesticated animals include: source of meat, cheese, milk, butter, skins, and materials for leather. They could also be used for specialised tasks such as plowing and transportation.  Domestication implies a genetic selection emphasising special features of continuing use to the domesticator. (Wild cows only produce milk for their offspring; wild sheep don’t produce wool)  Three elements are vital to domestication: constraint on the movement of the target populations, regulation of their breeding and control of their feeding to shape future genetics. Plant Cultivation In the Old World...  Wheat, barley, and other cereals that grow wild over Asia and Europe became cultivated.  Their qualities are much different from domesticated plants  For example, wild einkorn have a brittle, rachised ear and arrow shaped spikelets adapted for penetrating surface litter and cracks in the ground where as domesticated einkorn have a semitough rachised ear and plumper spikeletes which have lost some of the key features necessary for self implantation. (No clue what this means, but this part of the text is really hard to understand. Look at the notes that Dr. Prowse gave us about this) Technology and Domestication  People built their permanent homes with the raw materials most abundant in their environment  Agriculture was a seasonal activity so many people developed different strategies for storage  The first agricultural tool was the ‘digging stick’  The plow was an important innovation because it allowed people to turn soil over to a much greater depth.  Obsidian: A volcanic rock known for its easy working properties, sharp edges, and ornamental appearance.  Developments in technology made people more reliant on exotic raw materials which encouraged the development of long distance trading networks Forbidden Consumption: Food Taboos Marvin Harris and Food Taboos  Asks why there are Jewish and Muslim taboos on eating pig when pig meat is so enthusiastically consumed in many other parts of the world.  Proposes that we consider the role of environmental factors during early Hebrew times  For many populations, pigs were more of a threat than an asset. It is not a practical source of milk and it is difficult to herd over long distances. In addition, the pig has an inefficient system for regulating its body temperature in the hot, biblical areas compared to other animals such as cattle and sheep. Food Taboos as Systems of Meaning (Mary Douglas)  What people eat is a way of communicating symbolic meaning and material conditions of life.  Things that don’t fit into the ‘standard categories of life’ become reminders to people of moral problems or things to avoid. (For example, a pig does not chew a cud like a sheep or cow, so it does not fit into the same category) From Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens  The fossils from H.erectus range in age from 1.8 million to 400,000 years ago, which suggests that H.erectus was able to adapt to environmental conditions very quickly  The characteristics that distinguish H.sapiens from H.erectus are: larger brain and full speech capabilities Transitional Forms: Human remains found from the period of 400,000 to 200,000 years ago that maintain characteristics of both H.eretus and H.sapiens.  The skulls of H.sapiens are high and vaulted, providing a large cranial capacity  Skulls of H.erectus have a postorbital construction meaning that the front portion of the skull is narrow and the high forehead of the H.sapiens is absent  The anterior teeth are small compared to earlier homo species, but large compared to those of modern humans  Many distinctive characteristics that suggest strong jaw and neck muscles: ridge at the back of the skull, heavy eyebrow ridges The Evolution of Homo Sapiens  Anatomically modern humans first evolved in Africa and then spread out to other world areas Multiregional Model  Homo erectus disperses early from Africa 1.25 mya  There must be gene flow between these three groups (interbreeding)  Single hominid species since then  Modern populations arose from ancient, local lineages Replacement Model  Modern humans evolve and disperse throughout Africa 200,000 ya  50,000 ya one African population migrated to Eurasia and Australasia (genetic drift; founder effect)  Replaced local populations (no gene flow)  Problem: does not help to explain how there is similar species all over the place Hybridization and Assimilation Model  Modern humans originated in Africa  When populations increased, expanded out of Africa into other area of the Old World Genetic Data and Modern Human Origins Mitochondrial Eve  At the University of California, a team of scientists studied the mitochondrial DNA of modern women (147 women were studied from Asia, Africa, Europe and New Guinea)  They were trying to argue that modern humanity could be traced back to a single African female who lived between 200,000 and 130,000 years ago  The accumulation of random mutations in different populations displayed distinctive patterns. Assuming a constant mutation rate, the researchers inferred a maternal line in Africa dating back to between 200,000 and 130,000 years ago.  This data supports both the multiregional model and replacement model Archaic Homo Sapiens Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis  Neanderthal fossils have been found in Europe and The Middle East dating back to 130,000 to 30,000 years ago.  The front teeth are larger and have evidence of harsher wear suggesting that Neanderthals used their teeth as tools  Suggestions that Neanderthals were a transitional species between H.erectus and H.sapiens  There is anywhere from 1 to 4 percent of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans Anthropology Notes: Illness & Death pp. 166-202 Ethnomedicine • the study of cross-cultural health systems Health System • encompasses: perceptions and classifications of health problems, prevention measures, diagnosis, healing (magical, religious, scientific and healing substances), and healers • originally (in the 1960s) the term ethnomedicine related only to non- Western health systems, and was synonymous with primitive medicine (outdated terminology), it was recognized the WBM is also an ethnomedical system as well, so the term no encompasses health systems everywhere Western Biomedicine (WBM) • a healing approach based on modern Western science that emphasizes technology based on diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body Defining and Classifying Health Problems - labeling health issues by Western medical terms is a common problem because the labels are not universal and don’t always correspond to labels in other cultures Disease-Illness Dichotomy Disease - a biological health problem that is objective and universal, such as a bacterial/viral infection or a broken arm Illness - culturally specific perceptions and experiences of a health problem - first steps in ethnomedical research is to learn how to label, categorize and classify health problems - vector- the means of transmissions - knowledgable elders are often keepers of ethnomedical knowledge - ex. story of Boil teaches about the location of boils and how to deal with particular types of boils Case Study: Subanun - horticulturists living in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines - egalitarian people - 186 labels for health problems- very specific - skin diseases are common - in WBM there are panels of medical experts who have to agree on labeling and classifying health problems according to scientific criteria - where medical care is privatized, the code selected may determine whether the patient’s costs are covered by insurance or not - also WBM manuals are biased towards WBM recognized diseases, an often ignore health problems that other cultures recognize Culture-Specific Syndrome - a health problem with a set of symptoms associated with a particular culture - social factors that induce CSS can be stress, fear or shock - biophysical symptoms can be involved and in some cases can be fatal Somatization - (or embodiment) refers to the process through which the body absorbs social stress and manifests symptoms of suffering - ex. Susto - “fright/shock disease”- found in Spain and Portugal and among Latino people whenever they live - it is attributed to events such as losing a loved one or having a terrible accident - symptoms include loss of appetite, lack of motivation, breathing problems, generalized pain, and nightmares - ex. Anorexia Nervosa/Bulimia - culturally bound syndromes found in Western culture - mainly among white middle-class adolescents girls in the U.S. - since the 1990s (probably due to western globalization), cases have been documented around the world - symptoms included self-perception of fatness, aversion to food, hyperactivity, and after continued progression eventual wasting of the body and often death - no clear biological cause - possible cultural causes Ethno-Etiologies - etiology- the cause of diseases/health problems - ethno-etiology- a cross culturally specific casual explanation for health problems and suffering - ex. urban poor of northeastern Brazil, Feira de Santana- state of Bahia - consider several possibilities of why they are sick: natural, socioeconomic, psychological, or supernatural - recognize several levels of causality: underlying cause, intermediate cause, immediate cause - this is very contrary to the WBM approach - structural suffering- or social suffering, refers to health problems caused by powerful forces such as poverty, war, famine and forced migration - ex. poor communities in the Valley of Mexico: sufriendo del agua “suffering from water” - happens especially among women - immediate cause= lack of water for drinking, cooking and washing - can cause an constant state of nervous tension/anxiety - lack of water from unequal development also leads to a higher risk of cholera, skin and eye infections and other biophysical problems Healing Ways Community Healing - used by many non-Western communities - ex. Ju/‘hoansi foragers from Kalahari Desert - emphasizes the use of community “energy” as a key element in the cure - all night healing dance - happens four times a month - num= spiritual energy - kia= an enhancement of their consciousness - while experiencing kia they heal all those that dance - it works in both ethnic and western terms Humoral Healing - based on philosophy among certain elements within the body and the person’s environment - food and drugs have different effects on the body, classified as either ‘healing’ or ‘cooling’ (not thermal matters) - diseases= body imbalances, can be counteracted through dietary and behavioural changes - practices for thousands of years in the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and much of Asia - ex. Orang Asli- people indigenous to interior of Malaysia - have a conceptual system of hot-cold in cosmological, medical and social theories - heat is primary cause of mortality, heat is from sun and is associated with excrement, blood, misfortune, disease and death - coldness is vital for health- treatment is aimed at reducing or removing heat, associated with coolness of forests and a place to find treatments (i.e. leaves/herbs) Healers - specialists= midwives, bone-setters, shamans/shamankas (mediate b/w humans and the spirit world), herbalists, general practitioners, psychiatrists, nurses, acupuncturists, chiropractors, dentists etc - some healing roles have higher status, power or pay - the move of medical procedures into hospitals has decreased the number of local healers, ex. in Costa Rice they have encouraged all births to happen in hospitals which has led to a decline in midwives Case Study: Tsimané - foraging/horticultural society in Bolivia - around 8,000 people - rely mostly on horticulture with some gathering and hunting, new opportunities for work have come from logging camps, or cattle ranches, generally unaffected from outside forces - study focuses on mother’s botanical knowledge and its relation to the health of their children - study showed that there was a str
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