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ANTHROP 1AA3 (168)

Final Exam Review.docx

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McMaster University
Tracy Prowse

Subfields of Physical Anthro  Primates o Study of primates o Social behaviour, communication, infant care, reproduction o Understand natural thangs that‟ve shaped evolution & aspects of human behaviour  Human Biology o Human growth & development o Adaptation to environmental extremes o Human variation in modern pop.  Forensic Anthro o Anthro & the law; recovered human remains can help solve a murder  Applied Anthro o Use of data gathered from other subfield used to create solutions What is the Scientific Method:  Systematic observations of the world  Never- ending knowledge base; things in the world always changing  Empirical, or based on knowledge Division of Labour:  Women affected by reproductive role; child bearing, nursing, infant care Foragers:  Ppl whose subsistence pattern is hunting & gathering  Mobile- follow the food  Reciprocity  Food sources: game hunting, fishing, collecting plants & berried and shit Gender  Mostly = , but related to sources of food o Ex. Inuit o b/c diet based on mean, emphasis on male labour o increased male dominance Pastoralism:  Raising & caring for large herds of domesticated animals Horticulture:  Small scale farming using simple technology Gender in Pastoralism & Horticultural Societies  Related to control & distribution of produce & goods Agriculture:  Intensive farming, w/ lots of time, energy & technology  Surplus production to cover their asses for droughts and bad harvests  Sedentism; stay in 1 place  Social stratification Gender  Increasingly complex… variable degrees of male dominance, depending on local communities Archaeology of Gender:  Gender roles & relations… not just what did males/females do?  To see how gender affected social dynamics in past societies  What contributions did men/ women make to past societies? ***GRIDING GRAIN THINGY*** Cultural Aspects of Food  Food choices determined by o Cultural o Religious o Environmental o Economic o Personal factors Food is…  Biological & cultural  Linked to status & power  Defining & maintaining social relations Food Taboos:  DEFINED- the deliberate avoidance of food for reasons other than simple dislike  Pigs; Jews, Ethiopians, Orthodox Christians  Cows; Hindus  Carnivores eaten in few cultures; cannibalism in almost none ***Consequences of breaking food taboo harsher than for breaking food restriction*** 2 Types of Food Taboos: 1. Applies to ALL indiv 2. Applies to subset of indiv;; ex. Preggers not supposed to eat raw fish Reasons for Food Taboos:  Environment; unsuitable  Medical; unhealthy  Economic; animal more valuable alive  Symbolic; unnatural  Social; to increase cohesion or reinforce diffs Influences on Food Production & Diet:  Geo  Access to water  Growing conditions; temp Subsistence Affects:  Settlement patters  Pop density  Division of labour Foragers:  Small pop.  Little property  Communal sharing- “hxaro”  Open access to land, labour Pastoralism:  Size & density of pop. varies  Combines subsistence strategies  Eg w/ foraging or small scale farming Horticulture:  Larger surplus= larger pop.  Slash & burn; plant/burn/rotate  Division of labour 1. The Fertile Crescent  11- 10 000 YA  Domesticated wheat & barley 2. Mesoamerica  ~ 7000 YA  Maize, beans & squash 3. Highland/ Coastal Andes  ~ 7500- 4500 BP  Llama, alpaca, guinea pig, potato, quinoa 4. China  ~8000 YA  Rice & millet How are Domesticated Animals Recognized?  Size  Geo distribution  Pop. characteristics; few males, lotsa females The Impact of Agriculture:  Fundamental change in the way humans interact w/ their environment o From dependency on natural resources to controlling them  Major changes to diet  Changes in demography, economy, urbanization Theories on the Origins of Agriculture Climate Change  Harsh drought or other short term climatic change can affect people‟s choices of food & ways of feeding themselves Population & Resource Theories  Population growth in restricted areas with diverse resources can cause food shortages b/c there‟s less mobility  Hunter gatherers have an advantage because they move around and use resources all over the fucking place Social Factors  In hunter gatherer societies, the expansion of trade and political alliances between neighbouring groups created new social and economic pressure to produce more surplus goods, not just foodstuffs  This led to more sedentary lifeways Ecological Factors  Local variability in food resources and effects of human exploitation  Domestication of plants and animals  Questions: did cultivation enable people to widen their adaptive niches? New cost benefit that favored farming? Nutritive value and seasonal availability of foods? Did genetic changes in plants/animals play a role? Consequences of Agriculture:  Nutritional status may decline w/ agriculture o Dependence on 1 main crop; potential harvest failure o Uneven food distribution (social status)  New opportunities for zoonoses  Sedentism o Garbage & human waste accumulate o Higher pop. densities= herd diseases Skeletal Indicators of Poor Health (goes along with consequences of agriculture)  Increased evidence for nutritional deficiencies  Cavities  Decreased stature  Oral health: abscesses, dental calculus  Linear enamel hypoplasia: stress on skeleton during health and development  Harris lines on tibia are indicators of stress during growth Medical Anthropology  Subfield of cultural anthro  Ethnomedicine- cross cultural study of health & health systems  Critical medical anthropology focus on how economic and political power structures and inequality affects health and access to healing  Anorexia nervosa- socially constructed concepts of perfection, morality  Western CSS Ecological Epidemiological Approach  Position that environment interacted w/ culture to influence the cause & spread of health problems  Anorexia- results from urbanizations, modernization, stressors 4 Humors  Blood  Phlegm  Yellow bile  Black bile  Illnesses came from being “out of humor” Hot- Cold Theory of Disease  Latin American medical practice  Emphasis on body in balance Germ Theory  Pasteur; Koch  Diff diseases caused by diff germs  Disease caused by damage to tissues Western Biomedicine  Body as machine  „Repair‟ body  Emphasis on micro organisms  Treatment= kill organism  eliminate disease  Battle metaphors Illness vs. Disease  Illness- perceptions & experiences of a health problem  Disease- biological health problem; universal e.g. measles Culture Specific Syndromes How do we Define Death?  Traditional medicinal view- lack of respiration, pulse & heartbeat  Failure to respond to stimuli  Lowered body temp & stiffness Harvard Criteria for Death 1. Unreceptive & unresponsive 2. No spontaneous movement or respiration 3. No reflexes 4. Flat ECG 5. No circulation to or within brain Rituals Surrounding Death  In many cultures death considered unclean  Rituals to transition deceased from living world to dead o Wake, burial, cremation  Period of mourning  Rituals to reintegrate survivors back into community  Usually deceased separated from living Reasons for Infanticide  Infant ill or deformed  Sex  Result of adultery  Birth of twins  Too many children  Poverty **Cross cultural perspectives on infanticide** GUEST LECTURE: Myriam Nafte- Human Remains as…  Talisman o Objects endowed w/ magic, brings luck, healing, wards off evil  Personal Property o They killed this person, therefore they own them & the rights to corpse & non- corpse parts  Trophy o Award for… o Success & ability o Death count o Progress of war o Advancement of strength & status o Warning to potential enemies  Tools of the Trade o To cast spells, impart/prevent curses o Use as instruments of magic & prediction  Control & Authority o Minimize impact of death o Control chaos & spirit world o Possess spirits for shamanic work  Veneration & Worship o Ties to ancestors o Acknowledgement of family & elders o Respect for past generations who intercede on one‟s behalf o Display lineage & history 3 Epidemiological Transitions Food Production  ~10 000 YA  Food productions altered human relationships w environment  Cultivation of plants  D
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