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ANTHROP 1AA3 Final: anthropology lecture notes

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Andrew Wade

Alyssa Alidina, 1 Anthropology Exam Notes: Lecture Lecture 8: Food and Nutrition • Pg 62-95 Six Major Classes of Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins (amino acids) • Vitamins • Minerals • Waters Cultural Aspects of Food • Cultural • Religious • Environmental • Economic • Personal factors Food and Religion • The Eucharist o Body and blood of Christ • Ramadan o Islamic o Fasting from dawn until dusk • Algonquin ‘Feast of the Dead’ o Gather around the dead and feast • Ritual Sacrifice and Cannibalism o Aztecs o God requires human sacrifice • Day of the dead and feast of the dead o Celebrate the dead and children o Revisit the dead o Feast • Celebrations, Rites of Passage o Demali in India • Food as Competition o Chung Choi in Hong Kong • Potluck Ceremonies o Comparative sharing of food to guests o Validates social status o Establishes relationships Food is… Alyssa Alidina, 2 • Sustenance • Biological and cultural • Linked to status and power • Defining and maintaining social relations Paleo diet: eat how ancestors eat. • Mainly for men • Says that agriculture diets make us more ill/our bodies not built for it • No grains, mostly fruits, nuts meat, vegetables • Based on myths and not proven facts • All vegetables have been bred and human engineered and are far from what they are in the wilds • An example of how anthropology can help us live properly Early Food Production • Earliest evidence from near east • Wild grasses - 12000 BCE • Domesticated grains - 10000 BCE Influences on early food production and diet • Geography • Access to water o Plant growth, some need more (rice), some don’t (wheat) • Growing conditions o Amount of sun, temp, humidity, etc. o Different depending on location Universals in human food use • Omnivorous diet • Cooking • Intensive food preparation • Elaborate systems of food distribution, sharing, and exchange • Food prohibitions and preferences in every culture Food Classification Systems • People tend to classify foods in different ways • Edible-inedible • Hot-cold • Wet-dry • Male-female Hot and Cold Classifications of Food • Common in Latin America and Asia • Originally from Greek theory of health (4 humors) Alyssa Alidina, 3 • Health - balance of opposing elements • Basic idea in Greek, Indian, Chinese, and Arabic medical systems Food Restrictions • Food preferences • Food restrictions o Periodic denial of certain foods (pregnant women) • Food taboos o Deliberate avoidance Food taboos • Deliberate avoidance of food items • Pigs o Muslims, Jewish, Ethiopian orthodox Christians • Cows o Hindu • Carnivores eaten in few cultures • Almost universal taboo against eating humans How do we make sense of food taboos? • A marker of a group: a way of separating your group from others • Protection against diseases • Ecological theories • Not the same as food preferences Reasons for food taboos • Early anthropologists - quirks of culture • Environment - not suitable for area and scarce • Medical reasons • Economic reasons • Social reasons • Symbolic reasons o Unnatural o Ex: dogs Summary • Food is more than just nutrition • Expression of culture Carrying Capacity • Number of people who can be sustained by the resources and environment in which they live Subsistence Patterns Alyssa Alidina, 4 • Methods of obtaining food • Make use of available land, resources, available labour, energy, and technology • Two basic modes of subsistence… o Finding food: Foraging, or hunting and gathering o Growing food: food production Subsistence affects • Foragers (or hunter gatherers) o Was humanity’s only subsistence strategy for countless millennia until about 10,000 years ago ▪ People in the middle east started o herd animals and grow their own crops o Smaller, temporary settlements o Predictable o Specific areas • Agriculturalists o Larger, permanent settlements • Population • Division of Labour Forager Case Study: Ju/’hoansi • Live in the Kalahari desert • Gathers about 70% of their food • No social hierarchy • No authority • Occasional, temporary leaders • No private property, social mechanisms to equally determine quantities • Small populations o To sustain resources • Social and Cultural Factors o Little property o Communal sharing • Hxaro: type of Ju/’Hoansi system o Delayed form of non-equivalent gift exchange o Giving or receiving o Sometimes exchange partners o The act of reciprocating Important to establish and keep relationships between different groups Pastoralism • Population Factors o Size and density varies • Combined Subsistence Strategies o With foraging or small-scale farming • Land and Labour Alyssa Alidina, 5 o Ownership and control of resources/territories o Division of labour Horticulture • One of the earliest farming techniques • Refers to small scale farming using relatively simple technology • Impact of Sedentism and Surpluses o Larger surplus = larger population • Slash and Burn o Swidden o Plant/burn/rotate • Division of Labour o Men is relied on the heavy work Horticulture Case Study: Zuni • Takes place in New Mexico • Zuni men were in charge of politics and agriculture, and in war • Both genders took a role in overall culture • Lived in pueblos • Would make waffle gardens Agriculture • Involves only some members in food production • Plow agriculture • Irrigation • Emergence of class of producers whose surplus benefits a ruling class Impact of Agriculture • Fundamental change in the way humans interact with their environment o From dependency on natural resources to control over domesticated resources • Major changes in diet • Changes in demography, economy, urbanization Village Life • Domestication o Sedentism • Investment in architecture • Decreased infant mortality o Increased population • Larger social groups • Potential for greater social complexity Agriculture not necessarily the next step in human bio cultural evolution • Many populations did not adopt agriculture Alyssa Alidina, 6 • Ecology more suited to foraging • E.g. populations in rainforests of Amazon • Other modes of subsistence ongoing today Why is it important to know about subsistence practices? • Relationship between humans and environment • What happens when there are changes? • How do changes impact culture? Why nutritional status might decline with agriculture • Dependence on one main crop • Change in texture and qualtiy of food • Uneven food distribution • Potential for crop failure Skeletal Indicators of Poor Health • Increased evidence for nutritional deficiencies • Cavities • Decreased stature Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia • Diet • Blood loss • Parasitism • Chronic disease • Genetic diseases • Chronic diarrhea Enamel Hypoplasia • General indicator of stress during growth and development • Tibia showing Harris Lines Evidence for improvement in nutritional status with agriculture • Most studies show a decrease in Harris lines o Farmers exposed to less acute seasonal shortages of food • For some regions there was an increase in porotic hyperostosis, but also a slight decrease Other consequences of agriculture • New opportunities for zoonoses o Infectious diseases acquired from animals • Sedentism o Garbage and human waste accumulate • High population densities favour “herd diseases” Alyssa Alidina, 7 o Ex: measles and smallpox • Infectious disease/nutrition Summary • Agriculture provided food stability and population growth • Some consts associated with shifts to agriculture • Increase in skeletal and dental pathology • Agriculrual revolution may have initally decrease human nutritional status and health, but this is not universal Lecture 9: Earliest Humans • Pg 223-240, 247-263, 268-271 Paleoanthropology • The study of fossil humans When and where did the First Humans Appear? • Hominid o Humans and their direct ancestors • Multidisciplinary o Physical science (Ex: geology) o Biological sciences o Social sciences What are Fossils? • Organic material is replaced by minerals from surrounding soil o Process called petrifaction What does a hominid look like? • Small front teeth and large molars • Bipedalism and associated anatomical adaptations • Increase in manual dexterity Ardipithecus Ramidus • 4 million years ago Australopithecus Afarensis • 4-3 million years ago • Likely that Australopithecus afarensis and the Ardipithecus Ramidus met around 3.5 to 405 million years ago Major Features of Bipedalism • Position of foramen magnum • Spine has two distinctive curves o Lumbar Alyssa Alidina, 8 o Thoracic • Shape of the pelvis o Broad and low • Length of lower limbs • Structure of femur and knee • Shape and structure of the foot (arch) Why did Bipedalism develop? • Efficient scavenging • Long distance travel • Predator avoidance • Carrying offspring • Enhanced heat loss • Communication • Food sharing and carrying The Australopithecines • About 2-4 million years ago • Genus- Australopithecus • Many species recognized • Found so far exclusively in East and South Africa • Clearly bipedal • Relatively small brains • Large teeth o Especially molars • Mosaic evolution Paranthropus Boisei • 1-2.5 million years ago • Brain size of 510cc • Features on skull adapted from chewing tough foods • Became extinct about 1 million years ago Homo Naledi • Earliest evidence was about 1.5-2.5 million years ago • Large brain o About 20% larger than Australopithecus • Evidence of stone tools • Might be the earliest homo • Underdeveloped research, uncertain if this is actually a homo Homo erectus • About 0.5-2 million years ago • Larger body size Alyssa Alidina, 9 • Less sexual dimorphism • Wide array of tools • Product of their larger brains • Bigger brains • Smaller teeth • First homo erectus was found in China Zhoukoudian • 780,000-400,000 years ago • China • Intentional usage of fire o Burnt animal bones, burnt tool, o Heating food was important o Some food was inedible, indigestible without heat o Gave humans a survival edge Summary • Earliest possible hominid fossils • 6-7 million years ago • Genus Australopithecus appears • 4.2 million years ago • Early hominids o Bipedalism; mix of features • Many species by 3 million years ago o Adaptive radiation • Genus Homo appears o 2.5 million years ago • Bigger brains • Innovations o Tools, use of fire • 1st mass migrations out of Africa Multiregional Hypothesis • Based on fossil morphology • H. Erectus out of Africa by about 1.25 million years ago • Populations interbreeding • H. Erectus disperses from Africa • Populations linked by gene flow • Single hominid species since then • Modern populations arose from ancient, local lineages Replacement Model • Recent African Evolution Model • Based on mtDNA Alyssa Alidina, 10 • Modern humans evolve and leave Africa about 50 thousand years ago • Local H. erectus populations replaced • Founder effect o Sample of the population gene o Replaces the local homo erectus and sapiens o No gene flow, no interbreeding Assimilation Model • Modern humans evolve and leave Africa 100-200 thousand years ago • H. Erectus and H. sapiens population interbreeding • Suggests that interbreeding did happen Neandertals • Subspecies of homos • Archaic homosapiens • A lower brain • Difference in teeth • Different size • Heavier, and stockier than humans • Larger noses, about a third larger than normal humans • Heavy usage of teeth as tools Hypothesis about Distinctive Classic Morphology • Adaptation to cold climate (glacial period) • Cranium reflects “industral use of the teeth” • Isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of glacial climate • Combination of all three How closely related are we? • Most humans have a little Neandertal in them • Neandertal genome sequenced • 1-4% of nuclear DNA is shared Summary • All models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa • Debate centers on timing and process • New DNA evidence suggests that we have a bit of Neandertal DNA in us • New fossil discoveries permit revised/new interpretations Misconceptions about Evolution • Evolution is just a theory o In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world = theory Alyssa Alidina, 11 • Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution • Evolution is a theory in crisis o Scientist debate how evolution occurred, not if it occurred. • Evolution and religion are incompatible o Why not teach the controversy Origins of Food Production • 99% of human history as foragers • Lactose Intolerance • An adaptation that is driven by a cultural drift Big Questions • Why agriculture? • Where, when and how did it happen? • Agricultural ‘revolution’ or slow, gradual change? • Positive/negative outcomes of agriculture The Mesolithic • About 17,000 - 10,000 • Extinction of large-game species • Shift to broad spectrum collecting • Less nomadic populations • Early evidence o About 11,500 years ago o Tool kits for harvesting and grinding o Intensive use of WILD cereals o Sites - more permanent o Increased social complexity • Where? o Ancient ‘Near East’ = modern ‘Middle East’ o Multiple independent centers of innovation o It was developed independently The ‘Fertile Crescent” • Earliest evidence o About 11,000 - 10,000 years ago o Domesticated wheat/barley What is ‘Domestication’? • When plants and animals become dependent upon human intervention for survival How did domestication happen? • Unconscious vs. methodical Alyssa Alidina, 12 • Routine human interactions with plants and animals • Deliberate selective breeding Domestication Benefits • Storage o Less mobile, less need to be mobile • Increased Yield o Bigger seeds over time o Greater yield from the area Domestication Drawbacks • Dental Problems o Rocks to grind grains • Nutrition o Consumption of different food source • Resource Access o Access to water o Drove an increase of inequality (lower status vs. newer status) Animal Domesticates • Ex: Wolf – Dog Transition • New Context • Morphology • Size • Sex/Age Ratio • Cultural Animal Husbandry Pros/Cons • Risk to Food Source • Labour Beginnings of Domestication • Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent) o Cultivation by 13-14thousand years ago o Agricultural communities by 10-11thousand years ago (Ex: Jericho) o Wheat, barley, peas, beans, lentils o Sheep, goat, pig, cattle • Europe o Local and introduced o 6 thousand years ago • East Asia o 11 thousand years ago o Earliest vegeculture o Root crops (Ex: yams) o Rice Alyssa Alidina, 13 o Pig, dog, chicken • Africa o Nile valley – 8 thousand years ago ▪ Wheat, flax, lentils, chickpeas ▪ Sheep, goat o Central ▪ Animal domestication before plant domestication ▪ Cattle • Mesoamerica o Domestication by 7 thousand years ago o Maize, chili, avocado, gourds • South America o 6.5 thousand years ago o Manioc, maize, beans, peanuts, potatoes • North America o Local by 4 thousand years ago ▪ Starchy and oily seeds o Introduced by 1 thousand years ago ▪ 3 sisters: maize, squash, and beans Why switch to food production? • Oasis Hypothesis o Drastic climate change o Dependence on fewer resources o Neolithic Revolution • Ecological Hypothesis o Learned about local environment o Environment provided opportunities • Co-Evolution Model o Incidental domestication from human plant interactions o Not intentional in beginning • Population Pressure Hypothesis o Filled optimal zones o Population increased o Spread into marginal zones • Social Hypothesis o Social complexity o Social competition Lecture 10: Food Production and Global Change • Pg 96-119, 138-142 Vertical farming • Saves land, building upwards, 1 acre of vertical farming is equal to 20 acres of outdoor farming Alyssa Alidina, 14 • No agricultural run off Aspects of Food Examined in Anthropology • Production • Preparation o Ex: Cooking • Distribution o Gifts, exchange, feasts, festivals, markets, etc. • Consumption o Socially patterned • Disposal o What is considered trash; who gets the leftovers? Documentary just eat it • Vancouver, BC • We waste 20-25% of the food we it • The husband and wife live solely off of food that is being thrown away, scavenge it • People care more about the aesthetics of food then the actual food o So much gets wasted due to this • Peach farm: up to 70% of the peaches were wasted due to the supermarkets having certain aesthetic standards • Wasting food is condoned by society, no fine for it, no necessary social punishment, unlike say recycling or littering • Found so much freaking food that's wasted when it's really fine, humans are a shitty species • We use ⅓ of all land and energy for agricultural, a monumental waste, damaging our land Optimists
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