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Anthropology 1AA3 FINAL EXAM REVIEW (Topics BEFORE and AFTER midterm).docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Sandra Preston
Semester
Winter

Description
Anthropology 1AA3 FINAL EXAM Topics from midterm: What is Anthropology (and its subfields)? - Four subfields: 1) Physical Anthropology a. Concerned with humans as a biological species b. Human evolution + modern human variation 2) Archaeology a. Examines material traces of past societies b. Artifacts provide clues to the past c. Prehistoric Archaeologists: study the artifacts of groups d. Historical Archaeologists: work with historians in investigating the societies of the more recent past 3) Linguistic Anthropology a. The study of language, focuses on the relationship between language/culture b. Seek to discover the ways languages are different from each other c. Structural Linguistics: explores how language works: compares grammatical patterns/other linguistic elements d. Sociolinguistics: interested in both how language is used to define social groups and how belonging in groups leads to specialized language use e. Historical Linguistics: concentrates on comparison and classification of different languages to discern historical links among languages 4) Cultural Anthropology a. Examines various contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world b. Unique research strategy: Participant Observation i. Learning the language and culture of the group being studied by participating in the group’s daily activities ii. Ethnography: a description of a culture within a society The Scientific Method - Inductive Method: scientist first makes observations and collects data o Data collected referred to as variables - Deductive Method: begins with a general theory from which a testable hypotheses is developed o Hypotheses tests through experimentation and replication o Contrasts with inductive method because inductive method tests and retests - Hypothesis: Testable proposition concerning relationship between sets of variables in the collected data - Theories: statements that explains hypothesis and observations about natural or social phenomena o Eg. The theory of evolution Culture and Death Culture-Specific Syndromes - Health problem with a set of symptoms associated with a particular culture (see page 168, Figure 4.2 for full list) Death - Definition according to Harvard criteria: o Unreceptive and unresponsive o No spontaneous movement/respiration o No reflexes o A flat EEG (electrical activity in the brain) o No circulation to or within the brain - Meanings given to death: o Death is…  A continuation of life  Perpetual development  Enfeebled form of life  Waiting, cycling and recycling  Nothing  Virtual - Rituals surrounding death/modern medicalization of death o Death is to be avoided o Family/religious figure typically present o Eventually became a “status symbol” to die under medical care o Death may be prevented (or at least delayed) by medicine - Cross-cultural perspectives on infanticide o Direct infanticide: death of an infant/child resulting from actions such as beating, smothering, poisoning, drowning o Indirect infanticide: a more subtle process, may involve prolonged practices * motives: infant is ill or deformed, sex of the infant, infant is the result of adultery, birth of twins, too many children, poverty * patterns and rates of infanticide vary between and within cultures * patterns vary according to cultural, political, religious and economic factors Illness and Disease - Disease: refers to a biological health problem that is objective and universal o Bacterial, viral infection, broken arm - Illness: refers to culturally specific syndromes, perceptions and experiences of a health problem Health Systems: - Ethnomedicine: study of cross-cultural health systems - Western Biomedicine: based on modern Western science, emphasizes technology in diagnosing and treating health problems - Community Healing: social context is crucial to healing o Solidarity and group sessions support mental health and physical health - Humoral Healing: based on a philosophy of balance among certain elements within the body and within the person’s environment o Food and drugs have different effects on the body: “heating” or “cooling” o Diseases are the result of bodily imbalances Humans and Diseases - Three epidemiological transitions: 1) Emphasizing the importance of the environment in shaping health problems and how they spread a. Research focuses on gathering information about environmental context and social patterns that affect health b. Yields findings relevant to public health programs, provides information about groups that are at risk of specific problems 2) Highlighting symbols and meaning in people’s expression of suffering and healing practices a. The Interpretivist Approach: examining health systems as meaning b. Study how people in different cultures label, describe, experience illness and how healing systems offer meaningful responses to individual and communal distress 3) The need to look at structural factors as the underlying causes of health problems and examines Western Biomedicine as a cultural institution a. Critical Medical Anthropology: analyzing how structural factors affect the prevailing health system and access to health care - Modern Diseases: th o Mid 20 century: scientific advances reduced threat from infectious disease o 1980’s: onset and rapid spread of HIV/AIDS o Schistosomiasis: disease caused by the presence of aparasitic worm in the blood system Bioarchaeology and Forensic Anthropology Death Investigations – Forensic Anthropology - Principles of skeletal analysis are used in legal/criminal investigations o PhD in Biological Anthropology o Involved in research, recovery and analysis Process of Decomposition - Breakdown and destruction of organic tissues - Autolysis* – degeneration of body tissues by digestive fluids - Putrefaction* – bacteria reproduce and start to consume tissues, muscles, etc… Factors Affecting Decomposition Most to Least Important: 1) Temperature a. High temperature means faster rate of decomposition b. Low temperature slows down decomposition 2) Humidity a. High humidity increases the rate of decomposition 3) Access by insects a. If the body is exposed to the external environment / insects it will increase the rate of decomposition 4) Burial and depth of burial (or immersion in water) Process of Preservation - Certain soils (the chemical conservation of the soil) - Climatic conditions (e.g. desert of arctic) - Water-logged sites (e.g. bod burials) o The chemical composition of the soil reduces oxygen acts to pan the skin of the dead o The skin becomes leather Ten Key Questions that forensic anthropologists ask: 1) Is it bone? a. Most of the time you are usually dealing with remains that are badly decomposed (fragments, bones, disturbed) 2) Is it human? a. When all soft tissues and nails are gone, hands can look very similar 3) Is it modern or archaeological? 4) What bones (and teeth) are present? 5) How many individuals are present? 6) What is the sex? 7) What is the age? a. Dental development can determine age 8) What is the ancestry? a. Formation of the skull tends to be different in certain ancestries 9) What is the stature? 10) Are there any unique/individualizing characteristics? Topics after Midterm Early Humans (pp. 223-247) - Hominids – different primate species, range of distinctive features in their teeth, jaws, and brains (represent adaptations to various environments) o Bipedalism (Earliest feature) - Ability to walk upright on two legs - This characteristic separates them from other primates and identifies them as a distinct family - Closest fossil relatives of modern humans - Explanations for the origins of bipedalism:  The shape of the knee  The way the femur articulates with the hip  Shape/curvature of the spine  Foramen magnum (hole in the base of the skull) is located on the bottom of the skull, sitting squarely above the body - Hypothesis of bipedalism (discuss)  Adaptive aspects of bipedalism are not immediately apparent o Skeletal/muscle structure needed for bipedalism is a slow means of locomotion o Upright posture adds stress on the lower back, hips, legs – makes it difficult to supply the brain with blood  Thermoregulation models may provide the most plausible explanation for the origins of bipedalism  Second, bipedalism had important social and behavioural consequences o When developed, it freed their hands to perform tasks (use tools, transport food, carrying infants) o Manual dexterity - Capability for took manufacture is not dependent on bipedalism, but dependent on cognitive ability and manual dexterity needed to manipulate objects o Large molar teeth - Oldest fossil hominids have a protruding face – jaw extending out further than in humans  Canine teeth large compared to humans - 2 mya – characteristics became less pronounced - Australopithecines developed large molars (massive chewing muscles) o Brain expansion - Around 1 mya – sharp increase in the overall size of the brain  Influenced physical and social developments (increasing brain size = numerous modifications in diet, evolution of language, etc.) o Mosaic evolution - * all these characteristics happened at different times  A pattern of evolution in which the rate of evolution in one functional system varies from that in other systems - Fossil names you should know / characteristics / rough dates: o Australopitehcus (Afransis, africanus) ~ gracile forms o Australopithecus (robustus, boisei) – robust forms o Homo habilis o Homo erectus (first species moving around different parts of the world and outside of Africa, fossils in Africa, Asia, and parts of Europe) o Homo sapiens o Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - - Key Features of Australopithecines o Dated between 3-4 mya o Bipedal o Small brains – cranium the size of a softball o Big teeth – developed massive chewing muscles o Mix of ancestral / primitive derived traits – ties into the idea of mosaic evolution: the combination of traits of the earliest characteristics of humans, some more developed than others o Lucy – enough of her skeleton was recovered to demonstrate that she was bipedal - Gracile vs. Robust forms (know the difference) o Gracile: - A. africanus - A. afarenis o Robust: - A. boisei - A. robustus - A. aethiopicus (sometimes called P. aethiopicus) - Key Features of Genus Homo o 2.5 mya first evidence of tools o Increase in cranial capacity, much greater complexity o Expansion outside the origins of Africa to other parts of the world  Discuss the different models/explanations for the origins of anatomical humans o Multiregional model – homo erectus, left Africa went to different locations in the old world, but there was gene flow : interaction and reproduction between these populations o Replacement model – one group left Africa but most went extinct. One main population were the origin/source of anatomically modern humans o Hybridization model – a mix of the previous two - Relationship between us and Neanderthals o Seen as a transitional species between Homo erectus and modern humans o Appear to have coexisted with anatomically modern humans o DNA testing suggests significant genetic distance between humans and Neanderthals - Further analysis shows that Neanderthals made up a very diverse population - Unique characteristics of Neanderthals o Dated between 130 000 – 30 000 years ago o Skeletons identify unique characteristics: - short, large noses (nasal aperture), robust skeleton - Thick skulled, heavy brow ridges / mid-portion of the face protruded, front teeth larger than those of modern humans o It is thought that there is gene flow between modern humans and Neanderthals o Eventually Neanderthals died off Humans Transforming the Earth (pp. 270-282) - Pessimists vs. Optimists o Pessimists: The Doomsday Model (neo-Malthusian) - We are over utilizing the earth, we will reach a point where we cause irreparable damage - Current global trends in population growth, energy consumption and environmental pollution will exhaust the world’s natural resources within the next one hundred years o Optimists: The Logic-of-Growth Model (Julian Simon, 1981) - We have the technology/intelligence to adjust and adapt to the changing environmental conditions - Assumes that natural resources are infinite, economic growth can continue indefinitely without long-term harm to the environment - Concludes that eventually technological innovations and human creativity will solve our problems - Technological trends o High-energy consumption is creating environmental hazards, but also led to increased depletion of resources o There is the possibility of new technologies on the horizon that may mitigate these high-energy consumption trends - Higher oil costs = demand for automobiles that need less petroleum - Environmental trends o Over-grazing, soil erosion and depletion of certain species have always been part of humankind’s evolutionary development o Development of globalization = negative consequences for the environment o Agribusiness = depends on the use of fossil fuels, chemical fertilizers, etc. to increase cultural yields - Impact of the “Green Revolution” (spread of mechanized, high-tech agriculture) - Through biotechnological research (genetic engineering), scientists have produced hybrid species of wheat and rice seeds that generate higher agricultural yields o What are the benefits/consequences? - Can have negative consequences for the global environment - Much of the food produced in both industrialized/developing countries contains traces of pesticides/poisons / residues may also remain in the food chain - Genetic engineering of various animals/plants - Deskilling: small farmers replaced by machines and more high-tech agricultural developments Green Revolution – PROs - 1950 – 1985: World grain supplies increased nearly 3x - Countries that had regular famines prior to Green Revolution now had grain reserves in supply for lean years (e.g. India) - Goal – increase production to end world hunger Green Revolution – CONS - Technology not spread evenly - Many subsistence farmers can’t afford seeds, fertilizers, equipment - Africa benefited least - Failed to address unequal access to food and food-producing resources - Population trends (exponential growth / changes) o Demographic-transition theory: assumes a close connection between fertility and mortality rates and socioeconomic development o Three major phases: - High fertility rate counterbalanced by high mortality rate, resulting in minimal population growth  Eg. Preindustrial societies – used various population regulation methods (self- induced abortions, abstinence, infanticide, migration) - Population tends to increase rapidly because of continued high fertility rates coupled with lower mortality rates – mortality rates decline because of increases in food supply, development of medical practices and improved public sanitation/health care  Dramatic population growth  Eg. Early phases of industrialization in Western Europe/North America - Fertility rates begin to fall along with mortality rates  As industrialization proceeds, family planning is introduced – traditional institutions/religious beliefs supporting high birth rates are undermined o Leads couples to reduce the size of their families  Eg. Advanced industrialized societies: Western Europe, US, Japan o Malthus: predicted that human populations would increase at a rapid, exponential rate, but production of food and other vital resources would increase at a lower rate - To measure exponential growth: doubling time: the period is takes for a population to double - Zero population growth (ZPG): population is simply replacing itself - Demographic-transition model: provides a conc
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