Jan 9 2014
What is Anthropology?
• PhysicalAnthropology- conduct research in 3 ways human evolution & modern human
variation (concerned w humans as a biological species)
• Paleoanthropologists- use a variety of scientific techniques to date, classify, compare bones to
find a link bw modern humans & ancestors
• Primatology- Study of primates, Jane goodall did this, mammals belong to the same biological
classification as humans so they want to study the rtshp.
• Archaeology- material traces of past societies, informs us about the culture of those societies
(norms, beliefs). Artifacts provide clues about the past,Archaeologists usually spend times
through middens (trash cans) to find out what tools where used, how ppl ate their meals etc.
History told by archaeological record is pre historic archaeology
• HistoricalArchaeologists- work w historians, in investigating artifacts about past societies
ClassicalArchaeologist- Conduct research on ancient civilizations
• Ethnoarchaeology- Study of material artifacts pat alone w observation of modern peoples who
know what these artifacts mean
• LinguisticAnthropology- rtship bw language & culture, how language is used & how it has
• Structural Linguistics- how language works
• Sociolinguistics- how languages define social groups & indicate certain class
Historical Linguistics- Historical links among languages, and it shows how language has
changed over time
• CulturalAnthrop- Examines contemporary societies and cultures over the world, they do this
through participant observation & ethnography
• AppliedAnthrop- Use of anthropological data from other subfields to address problems and
concerns, they use all 4 subfields for a ‘holistic approach’
• Most anthropologists look to a holistic approach to understand humankind, this holistic
approach gathers together all the four main subfields of anthropology.
Anthropologists have a global perspective, this allows them 2 consider all biological,
environmental, psychological, economic, historic, social & cultural conditions of humans.
• Inductive Method- Scientist makes observation first and then collects data
• Deductive Method- Begins w general theory and then they develop a hypothesis
• ANTHROPOLOGY IS COMPARATIVE, HISTORICAL, CONTEXTUALAND HOLISTIC.
Jan 10 2014
• Anthropology seeks out a understanding of people from ancient and modern times
• They gain a greater understanding of people & their personal lives in context.
• CRM (cultural resource mgmt)- archaeology concerned w management and assessment of the
significance of cultural resources
• Zeder study shows that archaeology is changing rapidly from a purely academic discipline into
• Pre HistoricArchaeology- Study pre historic times
• Paleoanthrop- Study of culture & artifacts of earliest humans, specialists of pre history in old
& new world Europe &American SW
• ClassicalArchaeologists- Remains of ancient civilizations (Greek & Rome) • BiblicalArchaeologists- Link accounts of biblical literature
• Egyptologists, Mayanists, Assyriologists work on those specific civilizations
HistoricalArchaeologists-study periods from which written records exist
• HistoricalArchaeology- study of ancient times accompanied with written texts
• Underwater Archaeologists-study ancient floods & shipwrecks
• IndustrialArchaeologists-study buildings and other structures
• Paleoethnobotanists-study ancient food remains
• Zooarchaeologists- study animals
• Pre history started before written records and history is with written records
• Pre historic archaeologists try to document and understand dhow humanity evolved and
adapted, so we can understand humans in our world today
Africa 2.5 million years ago was where early humans first appeared, then people started
spreading out to diff continents
• 60,000 years ago homo sapiens developed into the way that we are today, people always
question food supply back in the day questioning the hunter gathering communities etc
Jan 14, 2014 Film of the Iceman
Was found in theAlpes, body found under ice in 1991 they believed that this human lived
5,000 years ago in the copper age, they found inAustrian- ItalianAlpes
• 40-50 yo, believed he was murdered, they called him Oatzey
• He had a arrowhead in his shoulder blade, so they believe he had a violent death & he carried a
copper axe w him indicating a high form of status.
Jan 16 Sex & Gender
• Gender refers to roles that people perform in their households and communities and values ppl
• Gender identity refers to how people internalize & enact those attitudes & expectations that
are associated w the gender category
• Gender construct- The set of cultural assumptions about gender roles & values, gender is
something that is culturally constructed because people think it is something that is “natural”
• From the earliest times it has been shown that there has been segregation w male & females.
Early hominid males shown as they cared for their families, used their intelligence to provide
food for their families.
• ‘Man The hunter’said that men were always the ones to give food for family but it is wrong,
ppl where imposing westernized views. It was shown that they eat fiborous foods.
• During early human evolution- female roles combined reproduction, food procuring and social
• Cultural Constructs- models of behaviors and attitudes that a culture transmits to its members,
these constructs are shared beliefs & values.
IE (women tend to be more polite and deferential to men) a construct of a womens place in
• Transvestism- cross dressing to look/act of the opposite gender
• Gender Roles- the type of work assigned to a person bc of their gender, what positions they
should play, what rituals they shoud engage in, how to dress/dress
• Gender Relations- interactions bw men and women.. may reflect differences in status prestige
& power. • Depending on the society certain gender relations are viewed as different, but for the most part
men are thought of being superior to women
• Early hominids- men & f roles were not different except for child bearing, division of labour
by gender happened when ppl engaged in economic techniques
• Thinking w gender article: we see men and women as different so we treat them different.
however, we should not
• Margaret Mead- studied Papua New guinea,Africa, Samoa &Australia how in 3 different
neighbourhoods there was diff gender roles. In Papuea New Guinea (Arapesh- warm &
maternal temperments). Tchambu