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Anthro Exam Review (Final).docx

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Tracy Prowse

A NTHROPOLOGY E XAM R EVIEW Chapter 1: INTRO TO ANTHRO Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind • Historical Anthropology: o How did we evolve as humans? o What forces have shaped us over time? • Comparative Anthropology: o What do we all have in common? o How do we differ? o What are the reasons for differences? • Contextual Anthropology: o What circumstances, environments and beliefs have shaped human behavior and understanding? • Holistic Anthropology: o How can we understand the picture of human condition, both biological and cultural? Subfields of Anthropology (pg 2): • Physical: o Studies all aspects of the biology and behavior of human species o Concerned with humans as biological species o Subfield most closely related to the natural sciences o Subfields:  Osteology: the study of the skeleton, structure and function • Understanding the changes in fossils, adaptations  Paleoanthropology: the study of human fossil records • What does it mean to be human? • Variety of scientific techniques to date, classify and compare fossil bones to determine the links between modern humans and their biological ancestors • Many work closely with archaeologists  Primatology: study of primates and morphological characteristics to determine evolution  Forensic Anthropology: The study of human remains applied in a medico-legal context. Anthropology and the law, applied approach -- accidental death, crime scene investigation, human rights investigation  Human Biology: Human growth and development, adaptation to environmental extremes, human variation in modern populations o Can be useful in police investigations with the skeletons of murders • Archaeology: o Study of past societies and their cultures using material remains (tools, ceramics, sites, etc.) o Artifacts: The material products of past societies, provide clues to the past o Subfields:  Prehistoric: artifacts of first humans  Historical: artifacts of most recent past, work with historians  Classical: ancient civilizations, such as Egypt, Rome, Greece  Ethnoarcheaology: the study of material artifacts of the past and information on modern users who understand the use and symbolism of the artifacts o Used in preserving threatened sites from housing and roads • Linguistic: o Studies the construction and use of language by human societies o Focuses on the relationship between language and culture, how language is used within society, and how the human brain acquires and uses language o Subfields:  Structural: how language works  Sociolinguistics: relationship between language and social behavior in cultures  Historical Linguistics: concentrates on the comparison and classification of different languages to discern the historical links among languages o Used in government agencies to document missing languages and marketing • Cultural: o Study of contemporary cultures and societies o Culture is a transmitted and learned behavior o Participant observation: Conducting their fieldwork in different areas, cultural anthropologists learn the language and culture of the group being studied by participating in the groups daily activities -- become deeply familiar with the group and can understand and explain the society and culture of the group  Methodology: participant observation: learn culture and language by participating in daily activities  Ethnography: description of culture within society o Used in government programs to take cultural beliefs and needs into consideration o Related to sociology, psychology, economics and political science • Applied Anthropology: o The use of data gathered from other subfields of anthropology in an effort to provide practical solutions to problems within modern societies NOTE: • No anthropologist is an expert at all four subfields • Holistic approach: understanding all four subfields • Research crosses over subfields (interdisciplinary) • Focuses on diversity of humans in all contests • Humans are cultural and biological Ethnocentrism: • Popular perceptions about other cultures based on values and standards of one's own society • Members of one culture become so accustomed to their beliefs that any other cultural tradition seems bizarre • Universal phenomenon • Anthropological interpretations are evaluated several ways o The scientific method: a system of logic used to evaluate data derived from systematic observation  Systematic: observations of the world  A way of knowing the world around us through observation  Results in an ever-expanding knowledge base  Empirical, or based on observations o Inductive method: make observations and collect data (variables such as height and weight) -- bottom up approach, e.g., Charles Darwin  Hypothesis: testable proposition concerning relationship between variables  Theories: statements explaining and verifying hypotheses o Deductive method: a general theory which scientist develop testable hypotheses -- top down approach, e.g., Isaac Newton Anthropology and Humanities: o Humanistic approach to anthropology determines symbolism and representations of the world o Cultural and archaeological anthropologists use this method to understand practices or institutions within a society o Ethnopoetics: study of poetry and how it relates to the experiences of people in different societies o Ethnomusicology: musical traditions Why Study Anthropology? o Being exposed to different societies allow us to adapt to others cultures o Cross-cultural perspective allowing us to see ourselves as apart of one human family o Understand human evolution and development for self- awareness o Reconstruct and explain life ways in the past from material evidence Archeology and Prehistory o 7000 BC -- foragers prepared flints and left remains back to be discovered by Daniel Cahen who noted that one was left handed o Digging is destruction o Archaeological digging is rigorously controlled using standard procedure o Collectors and treasure hunters who collect endangered, finite resource that are rapidly vanishing are performing an irreversible act o Modern archaeology is the systematic study of humanity in the past Who owns the past? o There is no monopoly on history o Many civilizations believe that the world had not changed, instead there were time spans specific to certain behaviors and memories o Oral traditions: transmitting knowledge and history orally, antiquity is hard to establish What do archaeologists do? o Study of past societies, ancient and relatively modern meaning they cannot speak to their informants o Link material remains to human behavior and change over time o Cultural resource management is a type of archaeology concerned with specific sites o Work for museums, federal, state, governments, private consulting o It is now a profession of specialists o Prehistoric: from earliest humans to frontiers  Paleoanthropology: culture and artifacts of the earliest humans of stone technology, art, hunter- gathers o Classical: remains of classical civilizations of Greece and Rome o Biblical: link biblical data with archaeology o Egyptologists: require unusual skills for specific time periods o Historical: problems from periods existing within written records o Underwater: Study ancient sites and shipwrecks o Industrial: Study buildings and other structures of the Industrial Revolution, such as Victorian factories o Paloeethnobotanists: study ancient food remains o Zooarchaeologists: specialize in animal bones Why do archaeologists matter? • Archaeology is part of pop culture to learn about the interesting past • Pseudoarchaeology: using archaeological finds to tell a story about the past and avoid the science and theories behind the symbolism -- not archaeology • Major educational weapon to bring diversity to the world • After the first Ice Age the first humans migrated out of Africa and stemmed into biological and cultural diversity of modern humankind, art, urban and village civilization • Political tool: governments use the past to justify the present civilizations o Ex: the Aztecs became the rulers of a vast empire starting from farming and can now claim their land • Use scientific and political methods • Economic development: how high yields can be made without fertilizers and expenses • Garbology: tells us about the discard habits of modern industrial society Prehistory of humankind according to archaeologists • Prehistory: The human past before written records • ~4.5 mya earliest evidence of bipedal hominids • More than 2.5 mya starting with fist tool making hominins(human like beings) in East Africa • Early prehistory: 2.5 mya – 200 000 ya, tool making to modern humans o Archaic world of early prehistoric times, when the hominin evolved slowly into the more advance Homo erectus ~ 1.9mya o 1.8 mya humans spread to more temperate areas, Europe and Asia for heat and protection, adapting to far greater climactic extremes -- control fire o For approx. 800,000 years Homo erectus populations evolved into Homo sapiens in Eurasia o Among these populations were Neanderthals of Eurasia who flourished from before 100,000 until about 33,000 years ago during the intensely cold climate of the last Ice age glaciation • Origins and spread of modern humans: 200, 000 ya o Modern humans evolved in woodlands of eastern and southern Africa o 100, 000 ya many populations of Homo sapiens had spread into western Asia o After Ice Age humans crossed into Australia (45, 000 ya) o 15, 000 ya some human bands had crossed into Alaska and Americas leaving only offshore islands of Pacific uninhabited • Origins of food production: 10, 000 ya o Thawing of Ice Age lead to climate changes o 10, 000 BCE hunter gathers cultivated wild wheat and barley in response to drought, as a result farmers were flourishing o Herding of goats and pigs replaced hunting o Plant and animal domestication developed in India, Asia, China o Plants and cereals began in Americas by 4,000 BCE • Origins of states: 3, 000 ya o Centralized societies appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia • European expansion: final chapter o Expansion of Western civilization outward from its European homeland 1430 AD Thinking Holistically: • Holism: study of the whole of the human condition: past, present and future; biology, science, language and culture o Interconnection of subdisciplines o Framework to determine how varied aspects of human life are interdependent and culture integrated o Anthropologists do no generalize about "human nature" or the "way people are" without taking into consideration the wide range of different societies o Imbalance of birth rates in China is an example of interrelationship of politics, economics, kinship, law, family o The essence of thinking anthropologically is thinking holistically • Connections Across the Four Fields: o Each subfield illuminates related issues in the others o Archaeology connects:  Archaeologists reconstruct behavior through the study of material remains and ways of life that are no longer observable  Cultural anthropologist provide a wealth of information about people all over the world  Archaeologist can determine whether populations were hunter-gathers, if they were left handed, and cultural information is used to determine diets, household items and population size  Biological anthropologists work with archaeologists to reveal human past and ancestry using DNA and archaeology uses artifacts  Connects with language to determine how populations commutated to use and make artifacts o Linguistic connects:  We do not know when our ancestors began to speak, however, we do know that language is central to being human  Extends across time and place, and also extends to other fields of anthropology  Language is the way people express their identity  Through language we can learn about culture  Language dictates gender roles and behaviors  Historical linguistics can document change and spread of cultural material  Biological anthropologists are interested in the development of human language in the brain and speech via the vocal anatomy o Biological connects:  Biological and cultural changes often work together -- evolution  Cultural changes such as anatomical aspects and technology had caused evolution of humans through natural selection  Improved sanitation, immunization, insect control and antibiotics are cultural innovations that allowed humans to evolve o Cultural Connects:  Culture has the ability to shape human biology  Culture acts on biological laws, environmental forces  Sickle cell anemia was spread through mosquitoes which were bred from ecological changes • Took culture, biology, language, and anthropologists to understand Chapter 2: SEX AND GENDER • Gender: social roles in society; learned • Sex: biological differences between males and females • Gender roles: roles associated to different genders; in some cultures shifting gender roles is normal • Gender identity: how people enact expectations with their gender category; how people internalize attitudes and expectations -- expressed through clothes, colours, hairstyle, activities • Gender construct: cultural assumptions about gender roles and values and the relations between the genders that people learn as members of society -- unlike sex, gender is culturally constructed in every way -- gender constructs are deeply ingrained beginning in the earliest socialization experiences and become naturalized so they are taken to be a part of a person's "nature" and not usually recognized as being socially derived • Transgender: persons whose gender identity, gender expression, or behaviour does not conform to their sex assigned at birth • Primary sex characteristics: reproductive organs • Secondary sex characteristics: physical differences not directly related to reproduction • Evolutionary perspective: DNA evidence suggest divergence of humans and nonhumans was result of climatic changes o Skeletal features distinguish hominid males and females o Females pelvic size and physical structure (bipedalism) earliest was a result of giving birth and caregiving o Men were presumed to hunt, gather and feed the family o Earliest tools were used to dig for plants o Teeth evolved based on the diet o Females preferred healthy, sociable, friendly and caring males • Cultural construct of gender identity: o Primary aspect of personal and social identity o Develops in earliest socialization through the ways a baby is handled, treated, and spoken to o Cultural constructs: Models of behaviors and attitudes that a particular culture transmits to its members o These constructs are shared beliefs and values that become taken for granted as guiding principles o Cultures use appropriate naming for males and females o Ideology of men and women can be conveyed through religious beliefs, practices, language, daily interactions and activities o Gender identify can be signaled by differences in body adornments such as clothing and hair styles o Transvestism: Cross dressing to act and look like someone of the opposite gender -- removed from the official list of mental illnesses • Gender and sexuality: o Our culture teaches us what kinds of sexual feelings and practices are "normal" and what kinds are "deviant" o All societies institute some form of incest taboo o Culture determines appropriate partners, ages and practices o Laws are withheld on ages of sex and premarital sex • Gender and homosexuality: o US bans homosexuality, whereas India sees it as an expression of human desire o Attitudes are affected by cultural values and norms o 1990s -- development of queer theory and queer anthropology o ‘Hirjas’: neither man nor woman -- sometimes feared and ridiculed, other times considered sacred, combining and mediating between female and male aspects believed to exist in all humans o Two spirits: a third gender  Many native cultures of North America recognize a third gender  Separating a social being based on gender category from the biological body (the facts of sex)  Social concept that includes both biological males and females who assumed social roles other than the roles normally associated with their sex  Third gender was a distinct gender category separate from male or female  Become two-spirits as a result of personal inclination to favour one gender  Some females are trained with male roles if no sons were born  Females were pierced like men rather than tattooed like women  Men have to dance and bathe and are given a woman's shirt  Ability to perform men and women tasks was an economic advantage • According to Etoro beliefs people have a spirit source called hame that is needed to maintain ones energy and vitality • Etoro beliefs encourage male homosexual activity to ensure a man's physical growth and enhance his physical and spiritual strength • Men protect themselves from depleting their hame by avoiding sexual intercourse with women during periods associated with trading and farming • Men acquire hame through ingestion of semen • Women also have hame and must ingest menstrual blood to initiate reproductive capacity • Gender relations: interactions between men and women, which may reflect differences in the relative status, prestige, and power of men and women o Men and women have equally valued roles, but in some societies men are seen as superior • Division of Labour: o Men and women work is often complimentary o Occurred when people began to engage in specialized economic techniques requiring more complex skills o Women affected by their reproductive role o Different tasks require different amounts of energy and can be affected by age o Women gather wild plants, fruits, nuts and men hunt and trade o Protecting women from danger to reproduce is adaptive causing women to be less mobile o created to economically sustain a household o Work roles are inherently appropriate for men and women o Roles can change as economic, political, and social factors change • Gender equality: constellations of behaviors, attitudes and rights that support the autonomy of men and women o More likely to exist in foraging and horticultural societies, where all individuals make important contributions to subsistence and where hierarchical is absent or minimal • Gender inequality: denial of autonomy of people based on gender o Tends to be most marked in societies with strong economic socialization where social and political stratification affects the allocation of rights and privileges among social categories such as class and gender o Male dominance disvalues women’s rights o Women’s lives are domestic and men's are public o Ethiopia has ‘zar’ beliefs that allow women to be removed from husband o Social, political and leadership affect gender status • Foragers: o People whose subsistence pattern is hunting and gathering o Mobile - follow the food o Most display gender equality, but related to sources of food o Women's and men's contributions are usually equal and overlapped o Compare: Ju/’hosani (Southern Africa) and Inuit (North American Arctic) o In both of these small, nomadic, societies were traditionally organized around bilaterally related kin groups o Economic roles were defined by gender, but flexibility and overlap were also found o Productive labour of men and women was essential for survival relationships o Settlements were politically and economically autonomous o In both societies marriages are usually monogamous, divorce rates are high o Ju/’hosani: women gather nuts, plants and roots that account for 70% of the peoples yearly caloric intake making women’s status much higher than men  Men and women were rewarded based on their contributions o Inuit diet consisted of meat and fish -- emphasis on male labour (dangerous)  Increased male dominance  Men separated from women to hunt, their roles were much harder facing larger animals, wife beating was common • Pastoralism: o Subsistence strategy focusing on raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals o Emphasized their patriarchal social and political organization o Men control access to land o To be a Massai (cattle herders of Kenya and Tanzania) is to be a pastoralist o Women took care of cattle and men herded the cattle o Men made most trades but women could participate o Men held the major public political roles as heads of lineages, ceremonial leaders, and members of village councils o But British saw that men traded the cattle, diminishing women's roles, and increasing men’s economic and political centrality • Horticulture: o Subsistence strategy that focuses on small-scale farming using relatively simple technology o Control over distribution of produce and goods influences gender status o Egalitarian - e.g., Iroquois -- women and men have comparable economic roles o Iroquoian women make most decisions, gather more and bear children o Women were mostly responsible for distribution of food and public feasts, trading and hunting for men o Matrilineal clans, elder women, monogamous marriages, violence was unheard of o Non-egalitarian societies - e.g., lgbo -- men control properties o Igbo was patrilineal and men made most decisions, but women were economically and socially benefited by trading o Tradeswomen are autonomous and strong o Yanomamo society’s are male dominated • Agriculture: o Subsistence strategy focusing on intensive farming, investing a great deal of time, energy and technology o Centralized governments o Surplus production o Social stratification o Sedentism (stay in one place) o Male dominance is dependent on economic, political, historical, kinship, marriage and family factors o Increasingly complex societies o Variable degrees of male dominance • Industrialism, Post-industrialism: o Transformed agricultural societies into industrial nations o Industrialization began with textiles -- using mostly women's labour for the first several decades o Women became marginalized in the industrial sector through intersecting links between gender segregation in employment, and unequal pay o Some occupations were considered appropriate for women, and some for men (cult of domesticuty) o Women generally receive lower wages than men even when performing the same tasks (gender gap) • Gender gap: differential of pay caused by separation of work • Cult of domesticity: separate roles and domains are appropriate for men and women • Social reproduction: the care and sustenance of people who will be able to contribute productively to society o Women fought for their rights to participate in labour jobs to maintain a high social standard • Women’s roles in urban and rural economic development: o In some countries , industrial development favours women's employment in certain sectors o Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, national and multinational corporations employ women, increasing the labour forces among them o This gives them greater economic status and independence • Women in changing socialist states: o Although women and men have comparable occupations women are often paid less o Women's unemployment rates increased due to the increase in pressure of women to become full-time mothers and housewives • Impacts of Ideology on Gender Constructs: o Each increase of women's participation in the work force has evoked an ideological attack by supporters of patriarchal values o Mothers were expected to devote their lives to their children o Men are no longer sole supporters of families o Ideologies create and change gender roles to be acceptable o Women's roles have transformed, as have men's Sexuality: • Premarital sex: o The degree to which sex before marriage is approved or disapproved o Varies between societies o For example, the Trobriand islanders approve of, and encourage premarital sex, seeing it as important preparation for marriage roles o It is discouraged in many societies, for example the Tepoztlan Indians of Mexico believe that a girl's life becomes crabbed, cribbed, and confined after her first menstruation o She is not to speak to or encourage boys in any way o Society's do not remain the same, and practice's can change over time • Sex in marriage: o People in Bolivia prefers to have sex outside at night o Night is often preferred for sex o But some cultures opt for day o India believes a child conceived at night will be blind o Frequent marital sex is good, but frequent sex is weak • Extramarital sex: o Allowed more for men, but usually inappropriate • Homosexuality: o Referred to as sex between people of the same biological sex o However, that definition of homosexuality could differ in other societies o For example, the Navajo of the American Southwest recognize four genders, and only sex between two members of the same gender counts as homosexuality -- an they consider such relationships inappropriate o Papago of the southwestern United States could only participate in homosexuality at night o Siwans of North Africa expected all males to participate in homosexual relations o The Etoro of New Guinea preferred homosexuality to heterosexuality -- male homosexuality was never prohibited and was believed to make crops flourish o Few societies with female-female sexual relationships o Population pressure has made homosexuality more accepted Gender: Men and Women Gender is not the same as sex • Sex — refers to the biological male or female • Gender — socially and culturally constructed roles o Vital part of human social relations Archaeology of Gender: deals with the ideology of gender, with roles and gender Relations: the ways in which gender intersects with all aspects of human social life Engendered Research • Use a wide diversity of archaeological methods and approaches to find out how gender worked in ancient societies • Focus not only on material achievements (metallurgy, potmaking) but interpersonal relations and social dynamics of everyday life o Hunting, gardening, preparing meals Case Study: Grinding Grain at Abu Hureyra, Syria • Earliest known agricultural settlement in the world (10, 000 BC) • Bone deformation caused by arduous and repetitive tasks o Kneeling on the ground while grinding grain Role of Women in Aztec civilization • Skilled weavers, artisans, good cooks • Were valuable to the nation as a whole o Population of valley of mexico rose tenfold during the 4 centuries before conquest o Cooking & weaving were ways of maintaining social and political control  No example is given how, seems dumb as fuck Chapter 2 Summary Sex and Gender • Gender is a cultural construct that assigns an identity and appropriate roles to people based on sexual differences/cultural beliefs about sex and behaviour • Cultures vary in roles that men and women perform o Roles learned through earliest socialization in infancy through their childhood • Most cultures organize concepts of gender into dual division of man and woman o However some cultures allow males and females to identify as a third gender • Cultures shape sexual feelings and practices Gender Roles and Gender Relations • Gender influences work o Ex. Women always care for young children and perform housework o Ex. Men always hunt and go to war • Gender equality is found in foraging societies o All individuals contribute to subsistence • Other societies are male-dominated o Tends to occur in agricultural states Gender and Subsistence • Egalitarian relationships develop among foragers and in industrial/post-industrial societies Chapter 3: FOOD & NUTRITION Food is sustenance and symbol (biological and cultural) -- Linked to status and power Food Origins -- Early Food Habits • Survival was the driving force that determined what was eaten • Geographic features of their environment significantly determined what foods were available to early people -- Agricultural Developments • Civilizations that flourished in river valleys were able to grow wheat/cereal/other crops *see text page 98 for chart re: food by hemisphere of origin* Influences determining Diets Geography • Topography (geographic dimension) influenced agricultural land use o Mountainous regions did not lend themselves to agriculture (rough terrain and high elevation) -- inhospitable  Places like the Alps, Himalayas were uninhabitable o Lower valleys could be manipulated to produce crops  Ex. Terracing found in Asia • Ancient civilization of Mesopotamia survived because they chose good land o Valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers  Dubbed “The Fertile Crescent” Environmental Factors Water • Adequate moisture is needed for a crop to survive o Areas like Northern Asia and were dry  Adjusted by growing rice rather than grains like wheat • Irrigation systems were useful o Developed around 5000 BCE so crops could be watered Growing Conditions • Temperature was key to a crop’s success o Ex. Citrus fruits not able to grow in Norse regions; too cold • Must have enough warm days o Ex. Corn requires 140 days to mature Today’s World Food Scene Populations at Risk • All nations have under-nourished people, but lack of food is far more pervasive in developing countries • UN monitors the food situation around the world on an ongoing basis Economics • Poverty prevents many from getting enough food o Can’t put enough food on the table • Micro-loans are being given to small businesses o This helps them provide for their families Special Connotations of Food Salt • Simple, and essential part of many diets o Ex. Roman armies had people responsible for making salt • Even used as currency o Tibet 1300 CE • Specialty salts like grey salt from France Eggs • Pagans considered them to be a symbol of fertility • Christians associate eggs with Easter Universals in Human Food Use • Omnivorous diet • Intensive food prep Food Taboos • "The deliberate avoidance of a food item for reasons other than simple dislike from food preferences" • E.g, pigs - Muslim, Jews, Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, cows - Hindus • Carnivores eaten in few cultures • Almost universal taboo against eating humans Subsistence Patterns- methods of obtaining food • Two basic methods include finding food (foraging/hunting/ gathering) or growing food (food production) Foragers- hunter-gatherers (humanity’s only subsistence pattern until 10,000 YA) Pastoralism- raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals as primary subsistence Horticulture- small-scale farming using simple technology Agriculture- intensive farming techniques using industrial processes Carrying Capacity- number of people who can be sustained by the resources in the environment in which they live (not a fixed number; varies with things such as subsistence techniques, labour expenditure, and technological development) Settlement Pattern – the way people distribute themselves in their environment: location of dwellings, permanence of these dwellings Settlement Patterns • Foragers ◦ small, temporary settlements • Agriculturalists ◦ larger, permanent settlements Population • numbers, density ◦ ex. Catalhoyuk (people basically living on top of each other Divisions of labour • foraging societies ◦ egalitarian practices; males and females equal work • agricultural societies ◦ greater divide of labour between genders/age groups Foragers Population factors • Foraging communities tend to have relatively few people depending on the abundance or scarcity of resources • strategies to curb population ◦ in order to keep from literally eating themselves out of an area Social and Cultural Factors • little property • communal sharing- "Hxaro" Land, Labour, and Production • Nomads -- moving seasonally as resources become available • open access to all resources ◦ allocated certain key resources to specific groups 1 ex. water amongst the Ju/'hoansi Pastoralism A way of life that centres on the helping and care of domesticated animals, that is, animals whose genetic traits are manipulated by people for their own purposes. Animals are also the basis for wealth. Population Factors • size and density varies Combined Subsistence Strategies • Rarely has Pastoralism been a self-sustaining subsistence strategy • E.g., often combined with foraging or small-scale farming Land and Labour • Ownership and control of resources/territories • Division of labour, not as egalitarian as in foraging societies ◦ Males= take care of cattle, females= goats Pastoralist Case Study: The Basseri, Iran Horticulture (small-scale farming) • Impact of sedentism and surpluses ◦ Live in small settlements ◦ Large surplus=larger population • Control population in order to keep resources high ◦ Sexual abstinence, lengthy periods of breast-feeding, contraceptives etc. • Slash and Burn ◦ Plant/burn/rotate • Division of Labour ◦ Men did heavy work (clearing forests and woodlands to make new fields) Zuni (New Mexico) * • Live in small communities • Zuni waffle garden ­ efficient mechanism for planting • Matrilineal ­ females are in charge of the family • Men were in charge of politics and warfare Agriculture • Large populations • 'The Fertile Crescent" c. 11,000 - 10,000 ya -- domesticated wheat/barley • Greater division of labour, along with more centralization and wider disparity of wealth and power • Intensive agriculture uses draft animals, fertilizers, and irrigation to farm on a large scale • Changed the way people interact with their environment -- from dependency to control Agriculture and Animal Domestication • For more than 99% of our existence we were hunter and gatherers. Food Production: The deliberate cultivation of cereal grasses and edible root plans; a phenomenon of the last 12,000 years of existence. Domestication: when plants and animals become dependent on human intervention for survival -- 1st domesticated animals, dogs, goats, sheep, pigs, cattle • Responsible for the rapidly accelerating population growth and culture change in the past 10 millennia The Theories About the Origins of Food Production Changing environmental and demographic conditions at the end of the Ice Age, after 13,000 BCE caused major long-term changes in hunter-gatherer societies -- more localization, considerable technological innovation, and a trend toward sedentary settlement in areas with abundant and seasonally predictable food resources Early Hypothesis • Vere Gordon Childe: Theory of the “Neolithic Revolution” (Neolithic - the "new stone age" characterized by stone tools used for harvesting and processing grains o Proposed an Economic Revolution in prehistory in Southwest Asia during a period of severe drought o Caused a symbiotic relationship between animals and humans that ensured a richer and more reliable food source for people o Based on inadequate archaeological and environmental data Multivariate Theories • Early hunter-gatherer societies were well preadapted to food production before anyone started planting wild cereal grasses or penning animals. (Ex. The Kumeyaay Indians of southern California) Population Pressure • Population pressure caused hunter gatherer societies to abandon gathering because their growing populations had reached the limit that their food sources could support. Social Theories • Barbara Bender o Some hunter gatherer societies were becoming more socially complex. o An expansion of trade and of political alliances between neighbouring groups created new social and economic pressures to produce more and more surplus goods. Population and Resources Theories • Ester Boserup o People respond to risks by moving, developing new food storage technologies and by drying foods. o A straightforward solution to rising populations, resulting food shortages or risk factors is to cultivate familiar plants and to domesticate common prey so that people can draw on stored resources in scarce months. Climate Change • Although never a prime theory, climate change could have had a profound effect on peoples’ choices of food and their ways of feeding themselves. Ecological Theories • Kent Flannery o People adapted to a few animals and plants and scheduled their annual round to be in the right place at the right time to harvest. o As time went on, people spent more and more time cultivating. Social Competition • Brian Hayden o People acquire status by throwing feasts which creates obligations that others are unable to match. o Hayden believes that many of the first cultivated plants were flavourings, such as chili peppers, used to impress guests. CASE STUDY: Guila Naquitz, Mexico • Kent Flannery excavated a cave that was used six times over a 2000 year period as shelter • Produced evidence for the division of labour between men and women and the domestication of a gourd by 8000 BCE • Robert Reynolds “adaptive computer simulation model” o Memories of successive generations are vital to the modification of strategies in future years. Differing Dates for Food Production • Hunter gatherers in Southwest Asia and highland Mesoamerica were beginning to manipulate potential domesticates among wild grasses and root species at the end of the Ice Age • The archaeological record shows that agriculture was established considerably earlier in subtropical Southwest Asia, Middle and South America, Southeast Asia, and India than it was in humid, tropical zones because these areas were rich in game and wild vegetables. Studying Early Food Production Flotation Method: A method of plant domestication in which soil samples pass through water and recover substantial samples of even the tiniest seeds. Scanning Electron Microscopy: Allows scientists to examine the micro morphology of tiny wild and domesticated seeds. Why Did Food Production Take Hold So Late? • Once established, food production spread rapidly, partially because the resulting population growth prevented people from reverting to hunting and gathering. • The constant climate changes of the past 700,000 years must have led to conditions in some areas that presented human societies with the challenge of constant environmental change and population shifts. • Increased plant productivity resulted from higher carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere after the Ice Age Consequences of Food Production • Food production resulted in much higher population densities. • Smaller areas of land were needed by groups because they no longer had to follow the migrating herds. This led to the establishment of property lines. • Heavier toolkits and more lasting houses become the norm. • Led to a change in attitude toward the environment. Farmers altered the natural environment in ways that took years to reverse. • When people began living closer together, disease became more prominent. • Archaeologists argue that human health improved dramatically as a result of agriculture because people worked less and lived on more reliable food supplies. (However, some studies suggest that hunter gatherers worked less than farmers and had a healthier, more relaxing lifestyle) Herding: Domestication of Animals • Dogs are suspected to be among the first domesticated animals because of their use as hunting companions during the late Ice Age. The very first animals to be domesticated were goats and sheep. • The advantages to having one’s own domesticated animals include: source of meat, cheese, milk, butter, skins, and materials for leather. They could also be used for specialised tasks such as plowing and transportation. • Domestication implies a genetic selection emphasising special features of continuing use to the domesticator. (Wild cows only produce milk for their offspring; wild sheep don’t produce wool) • Three elements are vital to domestication: constraint on the movement of the target populations, regulation of their breeding and control of their feeding to shape future genetics. • Domestication lead to new opportunities for zoonoses Plant Cultivation In the Old World... • Wheat, barley, and other cereals that grow wild over Asia and Europe became cultivated. • Their qualities are much different from domesticated plants • For example, wild einkorn have a brittle, rachised ear and arrow shaped spikelets adapted for penetrating surface litter and cracks in the ground where as domesticated einkorn have a semitough rachised ear and plumper spikeletes which have lost some of the key features necessary for self implantation. (No clue what this means, but this part of the text is really hard to understand. Look at the notes that Dr. Prowse gave us about this) • Archaeobotanist: A specialist in the study of ancient plants Technology and Domestication • People built their permanent homes with the raw materials most abundant in their environment • Agriculture was a seasonal activity so many people developed different strategies for storage • The first agricultural tool was the ‘digging stick’ • The plow was an important innovation because it allowed people to turn soil over to a much greater depth. • Obsidian: A volcanic rock known for its easy working properties, sharp edges, and ornamental appearance. • Developments in technology made people more reliant on exotic raw materials which encouraged the development of long distance trading networks Forbidden Consumption: Food Taboos A marker of a group, a way of separating your group from others, protection against disease, ecological factors (Marvin Harris) Marvin Harris and Food Taboos • Asks why there are Jewish and Muslim taboos on eating pig when pig meat is so enthusiastically consumed in many other parts of the world. • Proposes that we consider the role of environmental factors during early Hebrew times -- maladaptative • For many populations, pigs were more of a threat than an asset. It is not a practical source of milk and it is difficult to herd over long distances. In addition, the pig has an inefficient system for regulating its body temperature in the hot, biblical areas compared to other animals such as cattle and sheep -- dirty Food Taboos as Systems of Meaning (Mary Douglas) • What people eat is a way of communicating symbolic meaning and material conditions of life. • Things that don’t fit into the ‘standard categories of life’ become reminders to people of moral problems or things to avoid. (For example, a pig does not chew a cud like a sheep or cow, so it does not fit into the same category) EVOLUTION: From Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens • The fossils from H.erectus range in age from 1.8 million to 400,000 years ago, which suggests that H.erectus was able to adapt to environmental conditions very quickly • The characteristics that distinguish H.sapiens from H.erectus are: larger brain and full speech capabilities Transitional Forms: Human remains found from the period of 400,000 to 200,000 years ago that maintain characteristics of both H.eretus and H.sapiens. • The skulls of H.sapiens are high and vaulted, providing a large cranial capacity • Skulls of H.erectus have a postorbital construction meaning that the front portion of the skull is narrow and the high forehead of the H.sapiens is absent • The anterior teeth are small compared to earlier homo species, but large compared to those of modern humans • Many distinctive characteristics that suggest strong jaw and neck muscles: ridge at the back of the skull, heavy eyebrow ridges The Evolution of Homo Sapiens • Anatomically modern humans first evolved in Africa and then spread out to other world areas Multiregional Model • Homo erectus disperses early from Africa 1.25 mya • There must be gene flow between these three groups (interbreeding) • Single hominid species since then • Modern populations arose from ancient, local lineages Replacement Model • Modern humans evolve and disperse throughout Africa 200,000 ya • 50,000 ya one African population migrated to Eurasia and Australasia (genetic drift; founder effect) • Replaced local populations (no gene flow) • Problem: does not help to explain how there is similar species all over the place Hybridization and Assimilation Model • Modern humans originated in Africa • When populations increased, expanded out of Africa into other area of the Old World Genetic Data and Modern Human Origins Mitochondrial Eve • At the University of California, a team of scientists studied the mitochondrial DNA of modern women (147 women were studied from Asia, Africa, Europe and New Guinea) • They were trying to argue that modern humanity could be traced back to a single African female who lived between 200,000 and 130,000 years ago • The accumulation of random mutations in different populations displayed distinctive patterns. Assuming a constant mutation rate, the researchers inferred a maternal line in Africa dating back to between 200,000 and 130,000 years ago. • This data supports both the multiregional model and replacement model Archaic Homo Sapiens Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis • Neanderthal fossils have been found in Europe and The Middle East dating back to 130,000 to 30,000 years ago. • The front teeth are larger and have evidence of harsher wear suggesting that Neanderthals used their teeth as tools • Suggestions that Neanderthals were a transitional species between H.erectus and H.sapiens • There is anywhere from 1 to 4 percent of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans Chapter 4: ILLNESS & DEATH Medical Anthropology Epidemiology • Study of determents, dynamics, and distribution of disease • Based on worldwide data • Transitions: o Food production (~10,000 ya)  Altered human relationships with environment  Cultivation of plants, domestication of animals  Zoonoses - infectious diseases acquired from animals o Industrialization (~200 - 300 ya)  Chronic degenerative diseases increase  Increased longevity  Biomedical technology (vaccinations)  Industrialization of food supply  Continued population growth and urbanization o Global ecological change (<25 years)  Infectious diseases re-emerge  Environmental degradation  TB, HIV/AIDS, SARS, etc.  Ecological change brings humans into contact with pathogens  Interaction and social environment changes within a global ecology Paleopathology • The study of injury and disease in the human skeleton • Subfield of physical anthropology • Reconstructive • Establish presence of disease based on evidence from skeletal remains Ethnomedicine • The study of cross-cultural health systems • Health systems include categories and perceptions of illness and approaches to preventions and healing • Shows how perceptions of the body differ cross-culturally and reveals both differences and similarities across health systems in perceptions of illness and symptoms • Culture-specific syndromes are found in all cultures, and many are now becoming global • Studies of healing, healing substances, and heals Health System • All cultures have a health system • Perceptions and beliefs about the body • Encompasses: perceptions and classifications of health problems, prevention measures, diagnosis, healing (magical, religious, scientific and healing substances), and healers • Prevention measures • Classification of health problems • Healing/healers • Originally (in the 1960s) the term ethnomedicine related only to non-Western health systems, and was synonymous with primitive medicine (outdated terminology), it was recognized the Western biomedicine (WBM) is also an ethnomedical system, so the term now encompasses health systems everywhere Western Biomedicine (WBM) • A healing approach based on modern Western science that emphasizes technology based on diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body • Body as a machine • 'Repair' body • Emphasis on microorganisms • Treatment -- kill microorganism - > kill dise
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