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McMaster Anthropology 1AA3 Final Exam Review

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Karen Mc Garry

Anthropology Final Exam Review Hominids Hominids: Different primate species that present a range of distinctive features in their teeth, jaws and brains. The closest fossil relatives of modern humans. Australopithecus: Emerged first and known fromAfrican fossil finds.Anamnesis and afarenssi are the earliest forms of this species. Homo: Includes modern humans, homohabilis, and homorudolfensis come from this. Homoerectus fond in Africa after homohabilis, and then evolved into homosapiens - Hominids earliest form of humans found in East & SouthAfrica derived 6 million years ago - Ardipithecus Ramidus is the earliest direct hominid ancestor found in 2009 in Middle Awash Ethiopia (5.8-5.2 mya) - The species was bi-pedal and found in heavily forested environments Hominid Features: - Smaller front teeth & large molars for a grain/plant based diet - Greater flexibility in hands for use of tools - Bipedalism Australopithecus Afarensis: Fossils discovered at Hadar & Laetoli 3-4 mya - Apelike with curved figures for climbing - Lower limb bones, pelvic orientation and hips/knees indicate bipedalism Case Study: Lucy - Lucy is an Australopithecus Afarensis skeletal body that is 40% complete - Lucy is 4 million years old - Lucy is from EastAfrica, Ethiopia - Smaller than the modern female and only 3.5-4 ft. tall Laetoli Footprints: Found in Tanzania (1978) - Found hominid footprints that date back to Lucy’s time - Fossilized in volcanic ash - Three Hominids walked across cool volcanic ash - Anthropologists were able to measure foot, pressure & skeletal features to determine bipedalism Australopithecus Africanus: Fossil finds from SouthernAfrican found 2-3 mya - First example of an australopithecine described - The Taung Child was found in 1924 by Raymond Dart - Discovered from a box of rubble with front of skull, jaw and endocranial cast - Determined the hominid was a child between 3-4 years old - Had apelike features but also had a forward foramen magnum and was biped - Smaller brain but highly developed RobustAustralopithecines - Found in South Africa - Larger zygomatic arches - Larger teeth - Pronounced supraorbital ridge - Thicker bone structure - Overall more muscular Australopithecus Boisei - Discovered in EasternAfrica by Louis & Mary Leakey in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge (a 30 mile canyon) - Initially found a skull and realize the teeth were distinctly hominid - Had larger hominid features - Called “the nutcracker man” - Discovered using numerical data Bipedalism: Ability to walk upright on two legs and frees hands to use tools & carry things etc. Major Features of Bipedalism: 1) Position of foramen magnum – located underneath skull in humans to allow for balance and in chimps located further back to create a slopped posture 2) Hominid spine has two distinctive curves (S-Curve) –Allows humans to keep bodies aligned over legs & pelvis, gorillas have weak top curve 3) Shape of the Pelvis (low & broad) – Helps support internal organs and stabilize the body 4) Length of the lower limbs – Human body is 20% made up by legs, gorillas/apes body is made up 11% by legs 5) Structure of the Femur and the Knee – Humans femur is angled inward to help us stand up straight, ape will never stand up straight Benefits of Bipedalism 1) Provisioning: Food, Sharing and Caring - Paleoanthropologist Owen Lovejoy explained bipedalism did more than for tool carrying - Allowed for the transport of food to a mate and using leaves to maximize food transports - This would allow the male to look for food and for the female to care for infants - Created a sexual division of labour - Sharing of the food favoured sexual fidelity and long term relationships between male- females 2) Enhanced Heat Loss - Less heat is generated in the legs of bipeds - Food resources were scattered and bipeds had endurance rather than speed - Ability to move longer allowed for increased hunting and search for food - Bipeds are slower than animals but with less hair, sweat glands and endurance are able to travel greater distances Foramen Magnum: Opening in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes (anthropologists pay close attention to this between humans & animals) Origins and Evolution of Genus Homo Homo Habilis - Discovered by the Leakys in 1960’s inAfrica Olduvai Gorge - Believed to exist 2.5-1.8 mya - Found to have a larger brain - Nicknamed the ‘handy man’ - Evidence of use of stone tools Homo erectus - 1.8 – 0.4 mya - Larger body size - Less sexual dimorphism - Wide array of tools - Bigger brains - Widest distribution of any hominid - Recovered from Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia,Algeria, Morocco, China - Oldest findings discovered inAfrica - “Turkana Boy” is one of most complete finds - 8 year old boy from Kenya that is 5ft tall and has human body characteristics Transitional Forms: Hominid remains that are difficult to classify from 200-400,000 years ago. Exhibit traits of both Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Discovered in Europe,Asia andAfrica. Sagittal Crest: Body ridge along top of skull that grows larger as chewing muscles move up along cranium Postorbital Constriction: Front portion of Homo erectus’skulls are narrow and widest toward the base of the forehead while homosapiens have a higher forehead (difference between transitional forms) Evolution of Humans Replacement Model - Modern humans evolved and dispersed throughoutAfrica 200,00 years ago - 50,000 years ago oneAfrican population migrated to Eurasia andAustralasia - Homo sapiens replaced local populations of homo erectus (no gene flow) Multiregional – Evolutionary Model - H. erectus disperses early fromAfrica 1.25 mya - Populations linked by gene flow - Single hominid species since then - Modern populations arose from ancient, local lineages Hybridization andAssimilation Model - Explains the evolution of anatomically modern humans - Allows for varying degrees of gene flow between h sapiens and earlier populations - Gene flow mixture occurred as a result of population migration and inter-breeding of genes - Gene flow between hominids fromAsia, Europe andAfrica Neanderthals - Existed 130,000-30,000 years ago in Western Europe & CentralAsia - Discovered in Neandravalley Germany in 1800’s - Form of archaic homo sapiens - Evolved out of the homo erectus as they dispersed - Associated with Mousterian tools found in Germany (knives, scarpers, etc.) - Had larger features i.e. the cave man look, used teeth as tools - Facial features protruded forward - DNAis present in modern day humans - First species to bury dead members Various Interpretations 1) Transitional species between h. erectus and h. sapiens with a restricted geographical range and distinct physical characteristics 2) Aseparate species from us that was well adapted to cold environment, larger teeth, jaws and more protruding face than h. sapiens (more favoured) Food and Nutrition Origins of Food Production - Until 10,000 years ago all ancestors were Foragers - Foragers:Ahunting and gathering society - Moved around and ate out the contents of different areas - Lived in low density populations due to lack of resources - Moved with seasonal availability of food - Slowly began to slow down and began to use agriculture - No longer travelled and worked 40 hours a week - Agriculture developed in different societies at different times, gradual change - Civilizations in river valleys started agriculture & domesticated animals & grew crops Evidence of Plant Crops & Food in Archaeology - Residue on pots - Seeds found using scanning electron microscope - Phytoliths: plants deposited pieces of silica on stones - Chocolate and coco used in sacrifices for God’s The Mesolithic - 17,000 – 10,000 years ago - Extinction of large-game species (mega fauna) - Shift to collecting/gathering lifestyle - Humans over-hunted and extensively used mega fauna animals for everything - Change in climate and disease caused animals to go extinct - People began to stay in certain spots and was a transitional phase that lasted years The Natufians - Transitioned to agriculture first 11,000 years ago in Israel and Jordan - Stayed in one spot for longer period of time to adapt agriculture - Tool kits & grinding/harvesting goods discovered - Use of wild cereals and fish sinkers - Discovered in the ‘Near East’Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Palestine - Sites were built more permanent, increased social complexity and culture - Higher status members buried with difficult to find items i.e. shells etc. Agriculture:Amode of production that involves growing crops with use of plowing, irrigation and fertilizer Carrying Capacity: The number of people who can be sustained by the resources & environment Settlement Patterns: The way people distribute themselves in their environment i.e. dwellings Horticulture: a mode of production based on growing domesticated crops in gardens using simple had tools Explanations forAgriculture 1) The Fertile Crescent - Are along Tyus upraises river, in Iraq, Iran, Turkey etc. - 11,000-10,000 years ago - Domesticated wheat & barely - Chose larger stalk and seeds when picking plants for sturdiness 2) Mesoamerica - Parts of Mexico, CentralAmerica, Belize etc. - 7,000-9,000 years ago - Domesticated maize, beans and square - Collected Teosinte to make corn - Maize, corn, beans, squash etc. were made together 3) Highland/CoastalAndes - Peru and areas within it - Llama, alpaca, guinea pig, potato & quinoa - 7,500-4,500 BP 4) China (Yangtzi/Yellow Rivers) - Rice and millet - 8,000 years ago Animal Domestication - Dog was first animal domesticated in 10,000 B.C - Goats, sheep, pigs, & cattle were then domesticated based on size - Goats and dogs got smaller & easier to deal with - Horses and draft animals were selected for large size to carry items - Kept more females to breed herds and for their milk - Greater control over these animals and tend to them for food resources Agriculture Theories 1) V.Gordon Childe – “Neolithic Revolution” - Developed in M. East due to drought & climate change - Robert Braidwood in Iran found no evidence of major climate change 2) Populations Pressure - Growing h&g populations adopt agriculture when they reach their resource limite - No evidence for high populations in SWAsian or Mesoamerica 3) Social Theories - Barbara Bender argues that h&g societies became more socially complex & created trading & hierarchies - Theory ignores environmental factors Agriculture Implications Health Implications: Zoonoses (infectious diseases acquired from animal influenza) i.e. birds, cattle, swine etc. Social Implications: Social inequalities (status differences based on class & access to resources) these inequalities do not exist in hunting & gathering societies Food Taboos Food Taboo: The deliberate avoidance of a food item for reasons other than dislikes - Pigs: Muslim, Jewish, Ethiopian, Orthodox Christians - Cows: Hindu - Carnivores eaten in a few cultures - Universal taboo against eating humans 1) Amarker of a group and identity 2) Protection against diseases 3) Ecological theories (e.g. Marvin Harris) Explanations of Religious Prohibition against Pork - Symbolic/Interpretive Perspective: ForAncient Hebrews pigs were classified as ‘unclean’ - Adaptive/Materialist Perspective: Environment of the Middle East made raising pigs maladaptive (Harris) - Pigs required an enormous amount of energy, land & resources to domesticate Two Types of Taboos:Applies to all individuals & applies to a subset of individuals EX: Papua New Guinea Tribe - Women cannot eat fresh meat, fruits that are red, fish, eggs (when pregnant) Reasons for Food Taboos: - Environment: Not suitable for area or scarce - Medical Reasons: Unhealthy - Economic Reasons: More value alive - Symbolic Reasons: Unnatural - Social Reasons: To increase cohesion or reinforce di
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