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Anthropology Midterm Terms

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Antonio Sorge

anthropology the study of humanity, including prehistoric origins of humans and contemporary biological, cultural 1 and linguistic variation 2 cultural anthropology the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems and to shape or achieve policy goals. 3 archaeology the study of past human cultures through their material remains 4 artifact portable object made or modified by humans 5 cultural anthropology the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change 6 culture shock deep feelings of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that may occur when a person shifts from one culture to another 7 deductive approach(to research) a research method that involves posing a research question to hypothesis gathering the empirical data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis 8 deductive method a method of investigation in which a scientist begins in a general theory, develops specific hypotheses, and tests them 9 emic what insiders do and perceive about their culture,their perceptions of reality and their explanations for why they do they they do. 10 ethnoarchaeology the study of material artifacts of the past along with the observation of modern peoples who have knowledge of the use and symbolic meaning of those artifacts 11 ethnocentrism judging another culture by the standardss of one's own culture rather than by the standards of the other culture, usually resulting in a negative view of the other culture 12 ethnography a book length description of a culture or cultures based on extended fieldwork among living people 13 ethnologist the anthropologists who focuses on the cross cultural aspects of ethnographic studies 14 ethnology the sub field of anthropology that focuses on the cross-cultural aspects of ethnographic studies 15 ethnomusicology the cross-cultural study of music 16 ethnopoetics the study of the poetry traditions and practices in different societies 17 etic an analytical framework used by outside analysis in studying culture 18 fossils the preserved remains of a plant or animal of the past, usually a bone, a tooth, or an impression such as a footprint or leaf impression 19 Hawthrone effect research bias due to participants changing their behaviour to conform to the expectations of the researcher 20 historical linguistics the study of language change using formal methods that compare shits over time and across space in aspects of language such as phonetics, syntax, and semantics 21 holistic refers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multifaceted system 22 hypothesis a 'good guess' about something worth explaining; data are gathered to support or falsify the idea. It also has the lowest level of confidence given to findings 23 inductive approach (to research) a research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied 24 inductive method a method of investigation in which a scientist first makes observations and collects data and then formulates a hypothesis 25 informed consent a feature of research ethics requiring that the researcher clearly informs participants of the intent, scope, and possible effects of the study and then seek their agreement to participate 26 interview the gathering of verbal information from living people through questions 27 kula a trading network linking many of the Trobriand Islands in which men have long-standing partnerships for the exchange of every day goods, such as food as well as highly valued necklaces and armlets 28 linguistic anthropology the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change 29 linguistics the study of language 30 middens ancient dumps or trash heaps 31 multisited research fieldwork conducted in more than one location in order to understand the behaviors and ideas of dispersed members of a culture or the relationships among different levels, such as state policy and local culture 32 paleoanthropology the study of human evolution trough the analysis of fossil remains 33 participant observation a method of studying contemporary humans in which the researcher lives with and studies the people for an extended period of time 34 primates the order of mammals that includes prosimians and anthropoids(monkeys, apes, humans) 35 primatology the study of primates 36 qualitative research research that emphasizes generating descriptive information. often through interviews and participant observation 37 quantitative research research that emphasizes gathering and analyzing numeric information and using tables and charts when presenting results. often uses surveys or questionnaires 38 questionnaire a formal research instrument containing a pre-set series of questions that the anthropologist asks in a face-to-face setting, by mail, or by email 39 rapport a trusting relationship between the anthropologist and the study of population 40 scientific method a form of knowledge-seeking that entails making observations, formulating an explanatory hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and conforming, amending, or rejecting the hypothesis 41 sociolinguistics a theory in linguistics anthropology that says that culture and society and a person's social position determine language 42 structural linguistics an area of research that investigates the structure of language patterns as they presently exist 43 theories interconnected hypothesis that offer general explanations of natural or social phenomena 44 triangulation research technique that involves obtaining information on a particular topic from more than one person or perspective 45 variable a datum that varies from case to case 46 adolescence a culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty to adulthood 47 berdache a blurred gender category, usually referring to a person who is biologically male but who assumes a female gender role 48 couvade customs applying to the behaviour of fathers during and shortly after birth of their children 49 cultural broker a person who is familiar with the practices and beliefs of two or more cultures, and can promote cross-cultural understanding to prevent or mediate conflicts 50 cultural configuration Ruth Benedict's theory that cultures are formed through the unconscious selection of a few cultural traits that interweave to form a cohesive pattern shared by all members of the culture 51 culture of poverty Oscar Lewis' theory that the personality characteristics of the poor trap them in poverty 52 ethnopsychology the study of how various cultures define and create personality, identity and mental health 53 enculturation the process of transmitting culture to infants or other new members of society through both informal and formal processes
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