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Anthropology Review All key terms on exam.docx

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McMaster University
Antonio Sorge

Chapter 5 Belief and Religious Ideology Religion  Beliefs and actions related to supernatural beings and forces Magic  The attempt to compel supernatural forces and beings to act in certain ways  Frazer Differentiated two general principles of magic o The law of similiarity, the basis of imitative magis is founded on the assumption that if person or item x is like person or item y then actions done to x will affect y, like a voodoo dool o The law of contangion the basis of contagious magic say that persons once in contact with a person can still have an effect Myth  A narrative with a plot that involves the supernaturally  Claude Strauss, saw myths as functional cause they help people deal with deep conceptual contradictions  Cutural materialist perspective says myths store and transmit information Doctrine  Direct and formalized statements about religious beliefs Animatism  A belief system in which the supernatural is conceived of as an impersonal power Ritual  A patterned form of behaviour that has to do with the supernatural realm Life cycle ritual  A ritual performed to mark a change in status from one life stage to another of an individual or group also called rite of passage Pilgrimage  Round trip travel to a sacred place or places for purpose of religious devotion or ritual Ritual of inversion  A ritual in which normal social roles and order are temporarily reverse Sacrifice  A ritual in which something is offered to the supernaturals Priest  Male or female-time religious specialist whose postion is based on abilities gained through formal training Oracle  termite mound oracle  rubbing-board oracle  the poison oracle  Three-sticks oracle Religious pluralism  When one or more religions coexist as either complementary to each other or as competitive systems Varieties of Religious Organizations  Individualistic cults • Vision Quest  Shamanistic cults  Communal cults • Chinese ancestor shrines. The worship of patrilineal ancestors is an important part of many Chinese holidays and festivities, including weddings  Ecclesiastical cults • Organized religions with a bureaucracy of religious specialists having their origins in state-level societies Religious syncretism  The blending of features of two or more religions World Religion  A term coined in the nineteenth century to refer to religions that had many followers, that crossed state borders and that exhibited other features such as a concern with salvation  Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam Revitalization movement  A religious movement, usually organized by a prophetic leader that seeks to construct a more satisfying situation by reviving all or parts of a religion that has been threatend by outside forces or by adopting new practices and beliefs  F. C. Wallace  1. NATIVISTIC: rejection of alien values and customs  2. REVIVALISTIC: return to (presumed) ancient ways  3. VITALISTIC: emphasis on importing alien elements (e.g. sewing machines, bottled alcohol, canned food, etc.)  4. MILLENARIAN: apocalyptic transformation of the world, involving overturning of present social system, predicted to occur in near future  5. MESSIANIC: spiritual savior will appear, or is already present, to transform the world through his personalized power Cargo Cult  A form of revitalization movement that emerged in Melanesia and New Zealand, in response to Western and Japanese influences  Undermined traditional patters of gaining status through the exchange of indigenous goods Art  The application of imagination, skill, and style to matter, movement, and or sound in a manner that goes beyond the purely utilitarian Blood Sport  A form of completion that explicitly seeks to bring about a flow of blood or even death of human human contestants human animal contestants or animal animal contestants Intangible cultural heritage  UNESCO’s view of culture as manifested in oral traditions, languages, performing arts, rituals and festive events, knowledge and practices about nature and the universe, and craft making. Also called living heritage. Material cultural heritage  Sites, monuments, buildings, and movable objects considered to have outstanding value to humanity. Also called cultural heritage. Ethno-esthetics  Cultural definitions of what art is Ethnomusicology  The crosscultural study of music Theater  A form of enactment, related to other forms such as dance music parades competive games and sports and verbal art that seeks to entertain through acting, movement and sound Expressive culture  Behavior and beliefs related to the arts and leisure Heterotopias  The creation of an internally varied place by collecting things from diverse cultures and locations, something formed from elements drawn from multiple and diverse contexts Wa  Japanese word meaning discipline and self-sacrifice for the good of the whole Chapter 6 Peace Violence and Conflict Formal sanctions  Rewards and punishments administered by persons in authority, the state, or the law Informal sanctions  Rewards and punishments expressed through praise, ridicule, gossip, and the like Negative sanctions  Punishments for offending social norms Positive sanctions  Recognition and rewards for observing social norms Dominance hierarchies  In primate groups, social hierarchies established on the basis of sex and age, males and females learn their place through socialization into their groups, inherently unstable Post-conflict reconciliation  Patterned behavior that occurs immediately after conflict has erupted and taken its course, to restore some measure of social harmony Conflict Avoidance  Prosocial behaviors, such as reconciliations, consolations, politeness, more apology, to repair social relationships without aggression Peacemaker  Individuals with a specialized social role of preventing conflict from erupting into dangerous combat Deference  Nonthreatening verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey respect or subordination to others Politeness strategies  Behaviors designed to mute antagonisms and avoid overt hostility by affirming common bonds and recognizing another person`s rights and feelings Song duels  Inuit contests in which conflict is expressed and resolved through public response to music Witchcraft  A belief system that functions as a mechanism of social control by channeling anger towards others Retributive justice  NON-STATE FORMS:  Vengeance: Aggression against others based on the principle of revenge.  Blood feud: Ongoing conflict between kin groups or communities, based on vengeance.  STATE FORMS:
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