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Mosey Nicholas J

RECONSTRUCTING AND INTERPRETING NON-HUMAN PRIMATE AND PREHISTORIC DIETS "We cannot escape the conclusion that we are what our ancestors ate" PRIMATE BASELINE • Diverse diets: insectivores, frugivores, omnivores, folivores A REMINDER • Last common ancestor with primates: 5 to 7 mya • Adaptive radiation of hominids 3 to 1.5 mya • First appearance of homo species about 2.5 mya TRENDS IN HOMO EVOLUTION • Bipedalism **** • Reduction of face, teeth, jaws food processing • Increase reliance on meat protein, brain complexity (tool making use) • Later- tool making and tool use DIETARY EXPLANATIONS OR CHANGE Food is the most selective pressure (food availability, the way they are processed etc) EARLY STUDIES ON DIET AND EVOLUTION IN ANTHROPOLOGY • Explanations for origins of hominids • Underlying theory- natural selection and adaptation • Used comparative analogy to other animals or people • Explanations for these new hominid traits (bipedalism) • Survival of the fittest is not correct o Having the ability to have a diverse diet, survival chances increase. Specialized diet means fewer options if food availability is low ECOLOGICAL APPROACH (1950) • Humans are animals - subjects to same pressures to survive • Emphasis on the importance of food acquisition in human evolution o Idea of behavioural ecology • Analogies with primates and modern h/g populations • Main method of food acquisition - hunting (high risk behaviour and physical exhaustion) • Important development of social behaviour and sexual division of labor • Changes in tooth shape and size related to use of tools "DART" THE PREDATORY TRANSITION FROM APE TO MAN (1953) • Reaffirming idea that early hominids were killers and carnivores - idea that we were dominant from our ancestors • The killer ape hypothesis (stated above) • Osteodontokeratic culture - no tools found sowing they were hunting killers o Thought bones found in association was killed by these ancestors. The coordination needed to kill these animals lead to larger brain function o Pelvis formed in order to help us hunt • Social behaviour related to hunting and bipedalism to carry weapons • Making weapons required learning and bigger brains • Selective pressures of hunting made us human THE HUNTNG HYPOTHESIS • Popular from 50's to 70's • Social carnivore models • Connection between hunting and warfare • WWII - looking for historical roots of human violence • Familiar theme in science literature and movies • Prevailing ideas at the time - dart followed cultural trends OPPOSING HUNTING HYPOTHESIS Zilhman and tanner 79 - prompts idea that male aggression as necessary for hunting and protecting the weak and passive females and children a d assume male dominance over females inherent to the hunting way of life Eldredge and taattersall 82 - a copout blaming our wars and violence crimes on some remote ancestor to absolve us from responsibility for man's humanity EVIDENCE AGAINST HUNTING HYPOTHESIS (70'S) • 60's first observations of chimpanzees as predators • Ck brain showed that. Ones in caves with darts killer apes were due to carnivore activity (leopards, hyenas) • Wounds in australopithecine skull were caused by leopard, not another killer ape LEE 68 "WHAT HUNTERS DO FOR A LIVING OR HOW TO MAKE OUT ON SCARCE RESOURCES? • Ethnographic analogy of !kung bushmen • Showed quantitatively that gathering is more productive • Greater caloric return • Hunting NOT as important - relate to prehistoric hunter gatherers o Did not depend on hunting or meat products PROBLEMS WITH ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELS • Modern h/g groups not completely isolated and they have their own unique cultural attributes • May not reflect one universal behavioural pattern from prehistory • Not "living fossils" • Fitting archaeological evidence into frames of reference developed for modern data • Also tends to look at hunter gatherer societies as not fully developed and not as superior ALTERNATIVES TO HUNTING: GATHERING ANDTHE OMINID ADAPTION • Feminist theory • Food gathering is the motivating force in evolution • Us. of tools and bipedalism needed to gather (vs. Hunting) • Hunting came much later - high risk/low return • Predatory behaviour - part of our primate origins • Natural selection increased hunter gathering SHIPMAN 84: SCAVENGER HUNT • Bipedalism an adaptation to scavenging for meat • More energy efficient over large distances • Better view to locate food • Hands free to carry scavenged food o Evidence of cut marks and tooth wear show we were scavengers 80'S TO PRESENT • Ongoing debate on importance of meat on hominid diet o Meat could increase cranium/brain capacity COOKING ANDINCREASED NUTRIENT DENSITY • Did the use of fire for cooking increased the nutrient density of vegetables • Possible synergy between the two: o Cooling released more nutrients o Regular hunting of big game increased nutrients BRAINS AND GUTS: THE EXPENSIVE TISSUE HYPOTHESIS • Explanation for brain expansion in homo • Bigger brain- more energy • Humans – co-evolution of brain size and smaller "guts" (intestines) • Smaller gut freed energy for brain • Higher quality diet - meat o Most of what they eat was for brain. o Fruits proteins etc require smaller intestines. Ecological shift allowed for expanding brain tissue. Energy nutrients did not have high ingest ability HOW CAN WE RECONSTRUCT EARLY HOMINID DIET • Early hominids (australopithecines) don’t leave many hints about diet • No tools • No maddens • Can look at paleoenviornment • Skeletal and dental evidence o Tooth size and shape o Enamel structure o Dental wear and micro wear o Mandible and facial biomechanics o Bone/tooth chemistry VARIATIONS IN TOOTH SIZE AND SHAPE • Living anthropoids with large incisors = more frugivours • Early hominids - smaller incisors (related to body size) TEAFORD AND UNGAR (2000) • Less emphasis on foods that need substantial incisor use (avoid food with thick husks, large seeds) • Variation in size associated with external characteristics of food CANINES AND MOLARS • Hallmark - large relatively flat molars • Small canines • Robust australopithecines have massive pre-premolars and molars o Opposite consumed a much softer diet TOOTH SHAPE • Variations in shape are adaptations to change in the internal characteristics of food o Strength, toughness deformability o Highly crested teeth – good for processing though items (insects, leaves) o Flatter cusped teeth – good for chewing/grinding • In general - large blunt teeth (adapted to processing small, hard brittle foods) • Not shearing crests (good for cutting and slicing ) • Would not be eating though foods • Probably some difficulty in processing meat • Ate fruits, nuts, flowers, buds • Leaf eating = sheering, rounded teeth are best for fruit o Early homos had hard time breaking down stems and leaves but god for buds flowers ENAMEL STRUCTURE: Thick enamel correlated with eating hard/abrasive MICROWEAR STUDIES • Microscopic wear on teeth reflected diet and tooth use • Patterns are used to infer diet in fossils • Folivores- long narrow scratches • Frugivores - more pits • Hard object feeders - even more pits • Fruit diet = pits and scrapes • Leaf diet=long narrow scratches AFRICANUS VS. A ROBUST • Gracile forms - less pitting than robust forms (More long narrow scratches) • Robust forms - more pits (Eating hard gritty fruit = lots of grinding) MANDBULAR BIOMECHANICS • Mandible fragments commonly found • Architecture adapted to withstand stresses and strains related to food processing PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER • Gracile australopithecines - increased abrasiveness in food • Less pitting than typical hard object feeder • Thick enamel • Broad incisors • Increase postcanine tooth size • Dietary breadth • Hard abrasive foods become more important • Robust - extremely large teeth • Microwar - hard object diet • Craniodental specialization - thick jaw, sagittal crest, wide cheek bones • Substancial difference in feeding • Evidence suggest mainly vegetarian diet BUT WAIT • Sponheimer et all 2007 study on robust forms • Laser ablation isotopic analysis • Seasonal diversity in diet • Not the specialized chewing machine • New explanation needed for extinction BONE AND TOOTH CHEMSTRY • Destructive process • Fossils are rare • Relatively small amount required • Problem with digenesis (post mortem alterations of bones and teeth) • Teeth generally more reliable STABLE ISOTPOES • Carbon isotopes from tooth enamel of a africanus and a robust • Animals eating fruit leaves and roots • Animals eating tropical grasses • mixed feeders - values in between Africanus • highly variable diet • mixed feeders • habitually eating plants or animals with C4 Robust • average 8.5% • similar to africanus • craniodental evidence indicates a tough, fibrous diet (crushing/grinding) • orally processed foods conclusion: africanus may have used tools instead of teeth to process food RE EXAMANING THE DIET OF A ROBUST • Traditional view - large vegetarians based on tooth and jaw morphology through micro wear analysis EARLIEST EVIDENCEFOR GENUS HOMO Homo habilis 2.5-1.5 mya Kenya and Ethiopia Increased cranial capacity Associated with primitive stone tools: oldowan HOMO ERECTUS • Upright walking man • First appeared in Africa the spread to Asia and Europe • Dated about 2mya • Associated with acheulian tool industry • Increased intelligence and increased tools linked o Acheulian tool more complicated as they are bifacial/ CONNECTION BETWEEN DIETARY SHIFT TO MEAT EATING AND BRAIN EXPANSON? • Were h. Erectus big game hunters • Did they expand out of Africa because they were following herd animals • Did increased meat consumption contribute to bran expansion? OR • Wider range of plant exploitation lead to SCAVENGERS OR HUNTERS? • Australopithecines and early homo were most definately savengers • Homo erectus probably engaged in organized hunting • Some argue that homo must have increased meat EXPENSIVE TISSUE HYPOTHESIS • Cannot differentiate based on evidence - chicken and egg problem SUMMARY • Limited to certain kinds of evidence when reconstructing early hominid diets • Our hominid ancestos diets were varied but have probably always been omnivores • Huntng was a relatively ore recent behavour, scavenging was more common for early ancestors PALEOLITHIC DIET PALEOLITHIC - 1.5 mya 10 thousand years ago Paleolithc prescription • Are we maladapted to our current diet? • H/g much morediversified January 24, 2013 THE ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES MESOLITHIC Culture period between paleolithic and Neolithic (approx. 17-12,000 ya) Extinction of many large-game species Broad spectrum revolution: exploitation of smaller animals(including fish) • Requires more elaborate tools. People move in relation to how much they have to, to fill nutritional needs, but movement is minimal Became somewhat less nomadic NEOLITHIC The origins of agriculture (about 10000ya) Domestication of plants & animals (not necessarily at the same time) • Not instantaneous, slowly through time, agriculture took over hunter gatherers (still some hunter gatherers but not as many Happened at different places and times worldwide (Near East, China, SE Asia, Africa, ‘New World’) Origins were independent Domestication – when plants and animals become dependent upon human intervention for survival ** Fertile crescent: rich in nutrients and good for agricultural society WILD VS CULTIVATED WHEAT • Different characteristics. Wild is smaller, more frail. Seeds much larger for cultivated crops WHEAT • Cerial grain • Origin: Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands • Could be easily cultivated on a large scale • Yields harvests that provide long term storage of food o Able to produce more food, feed more people o Freed up time for other activities (specialization) • Contributed to emergence of city-states in the Fertile Crescent (e.g. Babylonian and Assyrian empires) o More importance on land ownership because people were no longer nomadic (nobody owned land, but agriculture means you need to invest in your land) • A staple food (flour, fermented to make beer) • Domesticated wheat grains are larger (select larger seeds to increase quantity) • Seeds (spikelets) remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting o Plants wants to spread seeds. Humans prevented that, and going against natural selection of plant THEREFORE domesticated. Causes seeds to stay on plant (what people look for when domesticating a plant MAIZE The term "maize" derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word maiz for the plant Maize is the domesticated variant of teosinte • Maize= a single tall stalk with multiple leaves • Teosinte= short, bushy plant Several theories proposed about the origin of maize in Mesoamerica • Direct domestication of a Mexican annual teosinte • Hybridization between a small domesticated maize and a teosinte of section • Undergone two or more domestications either of a wild maize or of a teosinte Research from the 1950s to 1970s: hypothesis that maize domestication occurred in the highlands between Oaxaca and Jalisco Archaeobotanical studies published in 2009 now point to the lowlands of the Balsas River valley Staple food (along with squash, Andean region potato and beans) • Growth of city state • Pre-Columbian North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures DOMESTICATION OF PLANTS APPEARING 12000 YA • Middle east - barley, wheat, peas, lentils • China – millet, rice • Mesoamerica – peppers squash, beans, corn, potatoes in the Andes • Pacific island – sugarcane DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS Domestication (from Latin domestics) - population of animals or plants that (through a process of artificial selection) is changed at the genetic level, accentuating traits desired by humans. • Focused on ones that are most docile and able to be tamed Differs from taming (simply the process by which animals become acclimatized to human presence) Middleast- first home to domesticated animals (dogs, sheep, goats, and cattle) DOMESTICATED ANIMALS ARE REGOGNIZED BY • Size • Geographic distribution • Population characteristics • DNA All dogs used to be domesticated from a wolf AGRICULTURE IS NOT A UNIVERSAL DESTINATION Many people all over the world did not adopt agriculture, as their ecologies were more suited to hunting and gathering. • E.g. Inuit, !Kung San in Kalahari desert, certain groups in tropical rainforest of Amazon • Ideas of evolution were new and misused • Agriculture more popular and Europeans pushed away hunter gatherers Also other modes of subsistence ongoing today: e.g. horticulture (or gardening), pastoralism (nomadic and semi-nomadic) WHY ADOPT AGRICULTURE? Environmental change: Population pressure hypothesis OASIS THEORY Popularized by V. Gordon Childe in 1928 As climate got drier (due to the Atlantic depressions shifting northward) communities contracted to oases Populations forced into close association with animals, which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds Theory has little support (evidence that the climate of the region was getting wetter rather than drier) HILLY FLANKS THEORY Proposed by Robert Braidwood in 1948 Theory that agriculture began in the hilly flanks of the Taurus (southern Turkey) and Zagros mountains (Iran and Iraq) where fertile land supported a variety of plants and animals amenable to domestication POPULATION PRESSURE HYPOTHESIS Proposed by Carl Sauer and adapted by Lewis Binford and Kent Flannery Increasingly sedentary population that expanded beyond the carrying capacity of the local environment and required more food than could be gathered Various social and economic factors helped drive the need for food *more viable theory • Moved away from environment based theories, although many changes are due to a multitude of things IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE Fundamental change in the way humans interact with their environment • Went from working within it to transforming it Fundamental change in diet • Consumed micro and macro nutrients seasonally (availability based on different times of the year Allowed for changes in demography, political-economy, urbanization • Demography: age distributions; fertility (mobile means having children are harder, so space children out to accompany movement. Sedentary means more help for babies. Instead of birth spacing women have children closer together – increased population “boom” • Nomadic hunter gatherer, share with community – work as a team, no possessions. Agriculturalists have surplus AND ownership. Some people work some people exploited. • City states, monarchy: overarching political organization. Redistribution of surplus. Changed the way people possessed things (less sharing) CHANGING LANDSCAPES: terraced agricultural fields in Nepal. Erosion, fertility of soil. Changed the way the land looked TRANSFORMING SOCIETIES: the way environment looks. AGRICULTURE: BLESSING OR CURE We consider agriculture to be fundamental to our subsistence as human beings • Helps take pressure off seasons (harder in winter etc) HOW DID AGRICULTURE AFFECT US? Human biological changes that accompanied the agricultural revolution • Changes in the skull over time (because of agriculture) HOW DID AGRICULTURE AFFECT HUMAN BIPLOGICAL CHANGE Humanity’s changing face • Face and jaw size smaller than those of early hominids TWO HYPOTHESES 1. Early explanations focused on racial differences 2. Masticatory functional hypothesis states that changes in skull form are a response to decreased demands on the chewing muscles • Change in the face affect the teeth • Many more individuals today suffer from crowded jaws • Tooth size has decreased, but at a place different from those of skull and jaw decrease BONE STRUCTURE AND WORK LODE • Bone density decreases in comparison to hunter gatherers (more spongy; marrow increased, bone decreased) Acriculture’s changes to workload/ activity • Changes in workload and activity have also affected human physical appearance. • Bone responds to stresses on it over the course of a lifetime. • How hard someone works affects the skeleton. • Studies of the strength of bones in different populations illustrate the response to changing workloads. • The general evolutionary trend in humans is to a smaller, more gracile skeleton. WHY NUTRITIONAL STATUS MIGHT DECLINE • Dependence on one main crop • Change in texture and quality • Uneven food distribution • Potential for crop failure Skeletal evidence for decline health and nutritional status of human populations Examples of disease related to adoption of cereal grains Food processing and effects on nutrition SKELETAL INDICATORS OF STRESS ASSOCIATED WITH ADOPTION OF AGRICULTURE IRON Essential mineral Required to make to make the oxygen-carrying proteins hemoglobin (found in RBC) and myoglobin (found in muscles) • Heme iron is found in animal products such as red meat, fish and poultry. • Non-heme iron is found in plant products such as grains, nuts, beans, legumes Hamilton Health Sciences Patient Education. Iron Rich Foods , vegetables and fruit. IRON AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS • Essential element in hemoglobin • Absorbed through intestines • Efficiency of absorption depends on food source • Meat – enhanced iron absorption • Plants – various substances in some plants inhibit iron absorption (e.g.,phytates ) NONDIETARY FACTORS AFFECTING IRON LEVELS • Blood loss • Genetic diseases • Parasitism (hookworm) • Chronic diarrhea • Chronic diseases IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA • Characteristic “hair-on-end” appearance in x-rays • Expansion of the dipole • Thinning of compact bone • Postcranial changes are mild CRIBRA ORBITALIA Caused by expansion of blood-forming tissues = more RBC all infants experience “physiological” iron deficiencies between 6-18 months but have a response mechanism to chronic infection/inflammation; causes decreased intestinal absorption of iron. Low iron inhibits microbial growth HISTORY Known as early as 1500 BC by Ebers Papyrus (Egypt) th 16 century - “chlorosis” or “green sickness” Low freq. in Paleolithic times but increased during Neolithic period Associated with shift agriculture and/or settlement and increased population density SCURVY Deficiency in Vitamin C from fruits and vegetables; forms body tissues; fight infection; absorption of iron Takes an adult several months to become deficient Symptoms develop more rapidly in children • Causes pain in joints, bruising, bleeding in gums/loss of teeth Skeletal evidence: new bone formation in jaw/orbits HISTORY 16th century on wars at sea (lack of fresh fruit on ships) - Rare in archaeological record RICKETS Vitamin D deficiency (mostly produced in the skin) Needed for: absorption of calcium and Mineralization of bone and cartilage Bones become soft, light and deformed. Accompanied by dental development Disease of infancy/childhood because of diet or lack of sunlight exposure HISTORY 17 – 19 century during urbanization but declined after 1900 with better foods available - Rare in archaeological record DENTAL DISEASE Common in archaeological record • Not fatal but reflects general health • Fermentation of sugar/bacteria causes cavities (change in food resources) Abscesses: cavity, causing inflammation and puss build up, causing a hole (usually at side of mouth) Tooth Wear: erosion or tooth on tooth wear, abstraction Calculus: accumulation of plaque, develops near salivary glands. Mostly affected by diet and content of water Disorders associated with dependence of grain cereals 1. Pellagra: corn. Deficiency of niacin and protein 2. Beriberi: deficiency of thiamine 3. Ergotism: fungus infested grain Harris lines: non specific indicators of stress during growth and development Linear enamel hypothesis: defects on tooth frown, lines pits or groves representing distribution in enamel formation during infancy/ childhood (not specific indicator) OTHER CONSEQUENCES OF AGRICULTURE • Zoonoses: infections carried by animals (newly domesticated) • Sedentism: accumulation of human waste • Herd disease: high population increases spread of disease FOOD PROCESSING • Decrease nutrients • Improve bio availability, flavour and preservation OVERALL • Associated with Neolithic but varied world wide • Not everyone adopted agriculture • Costs associated with shift (decrease nutrition) January 31, 2012 AGRICULTURE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIORNMENT THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS (1789) essay on on population • If population is unrestrained by natural causes, it will double every 25 years • Population growth has a tendency to grow faster than food supply • Famine and poverty are the natural outcomes. Graph hypothesis: increased population consistence, but food increase not as quickly. Cultural conditions but basically saying we are doomed, inescapable poverty and people were bound to die. Why didn’t, malthus’ prediction about the world’s population outstripping world food production come true? Agricultural production increased • Crop rotation (nutrients wouldn’t drain) • Natural and chemical fertilizers (supplementing soil to maximize potential; waste to chemical transition) • Commercial seed production (no longer limited by seeds harvested from previous year) • Winter feeding of animals (helps maintain stock and breeding cycles) • Improved transportation routes (can buy products from all over the area) GREEN REVOLUTION • After WWII • High yielding crop varieties, fertilizers, pesticides and mechanized equipment • Changed architecture of plants: new varieties of wheat and rice with high grain to straw racio; increased proportion of nutrient uptake going into grain vs. straw PROS: 50-80’S world grain suppli
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