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Chapter 1- Exam Review Notes

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Ann Herring

Chapter 1 - Exam Notes - Biological makeup is influenced by genes and environment - Interdisciplinary science Arboreal: Tree-dwelling (adapted to live in trees) Morphology: Physical shape and appearance What is Anthro? - Historic - Comparative (humans have in common? differ? reasons for difference?) - Contextual - Holistic (how can we understand the entire picture of the human condition?) Anthro: Study of material remains and cultural features in order to reconstruct the daily life and customs of people who lived in the past, trace and explain cultural change - Study of humanity Biocultural Approach --> look at from biological and cultural perspectives Sub-Fields 1. Cultural Culture: Learned behaviour that is transmitted from person-person (generation-generation) - Humans are culture making species a) Ethnology --> cross-cultural research, comparative study of ethnographic data, society and culture b) Ethnography --> In depth study of particular cultural group, use field work to collect data c) Ethnohistory --> Use archeological evidence, historical documents and indigenous oral histories (multiple different source to construct a history) 2. Biological/Physical - Study of biological evolution and human biocultural variation - All aspects of present and past human biology 3. Archaeology - Study material remains and culture to reconstruct past and explain cultural change (artefacts) Artefacts: Material objects from past culture 4. Linguistic Language: Set of written or spoken symbols that refer to things other then themselves Historic Linguistics: Changes in language over time Structural or Descriptive Linguistics: Physical structure of language (how languages differ) Sociolinguistics: Study of language in social contexts - No anthropologist is an expert in all 4 subfields of anthro 1 Hominids - Earliest human ancestors --> 6-8 mya Hominids: Group of bipedal primates in family Hominidae (living/extinct) * 2 lineages: Modern human (Homo), Living Chimps (Pan) - Early hominids has slightly curved fingers and toes - Lived in woodlands NOT grasslands Physical Anthro Physical Anthro: Study of human biological evolution and human biocultural variation 1. Primatology --> biological and social nature of closest relatives Why Study Primates? - Figure out what is distinctively human - Behaviour of primates serve as models for ancestors that lived in similar environments 2. Paeloanthropology --> study fossil remains, GOAL: reconstruct human biological evolution 3. Osteology --> Study structure/function of skeleton (show changes in fossil materials and adaptations in living populations) 4. Human Biology --> interactions between environment, biology, behaviour 5. Forensic Anthro --> Anthro and the law - Physical anthropology is interdisciplinary Origins of Anthro - Linndeus --> system Natururae * Div
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