Study Guides (248,151)
Canada (121,346)
Anthropology (281)
Final

Chapter 3 & Chapter 4 - Exam Review Notes

4 Pages
102 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 2FF3
Professor
Ann Herring
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 - Exam Notes Typical Cell Nucleus: Contains 46 chromosomes in each somatic cell (23 from mother, 23 from father), stores majority of genetic information (DNA) Somatic Cell: Most cells in the body (not sex cells) --> 46 chromosomes Gametes: Sex cells (sperm and egg) --> 23 chromosomes Chromosomes: Long strands of tightly coiled DNA, paired structures, in nucleus * Each allele for a specific trait is located in same place on every chromosome * 2 alleles (1 mom, 1 dad) Human Genetics - 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) --> carry TONS of genes - Sperm has an X, Y (males determine sex of baby) - Number of chromosomes is different depending on species - Number of chromosomes is not related to amount of DNA - Some DNA non coding (can replicate and would not make a difference) Mitochondrial DNA Mitochondria: Power house of cell, generated most of energy - Mito. DNA found in cytoplasm - Inherited by mother --> eggs have mitochondria, sperm don't - Y chromosome only be passed from father to son (easier to trace line) DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Double helix - Genetic information stored in sequence of bases (nucleotides) * Adenine-Thymine * Guanine-Cytosine - Base pairs on sugar phosphate backbone - Order of base pairs that determines genetic code - Genes 'recipe' for making specific proteins * 'Recipe' passed down from generation to generation - Gene regulators can turn genes on and off DNA Replication - Identical copies are made - Happens before cell division - Parental strand is used as template for new daughter strands - Parent template separated by DNA polymerase into 2 identical daughter strands Cell Division a) Mitosis - Cell division to produce somatic cells (non-sex--> 46 chromosomes) - Undergone for growth and reproduction of body cells 1 - DNA is replicated - Replicated DNA (pairs of chromosomes) lineup down middle of cell - Cell divides, DNA separates (one goes to each new cell) - Produced 2 diploid daughter cells --> have 46 pairs of chromosomes b) Meiosis - Produces 4 haploid daughter cells --> 23 chromosomes * Reproductive cells * Half of each chromosomes pair in every egg and sperm Homologous Chromosomes: One chromosome from mom, one from dad Genetic Recombination: Some genes cross over at random points (reshuffled) - Sperm fertilizes the egg (2 complete sets of chromosomes) Building Proteins - Function of DNA - Genes (or genetic code) are copied (or transcribed) into mRNA (messenger RNA) - mRNA attached to a ribosome which uses info on mRNA to make proteins - mRNA is read 3 'letters' at a time --> called codons - Each codon is a code for an amino acid - Amino acids join together to make proteins - DNA codes for proteins --> genotype turns into a phenotype How Does Genetic Variation Arise? - Change in nucleotide sequence of DNA during cell division - DNA replication is not a perfect process (copying/translation errors) * Change in the structure of the DNA * Non-coding (doesn't represent a specific trait) - Some mutations can cause change in phenotype (but not all) Mutations - Random=spontaneous (copying errors during DNA replication) - Induced mutations (DNA damaged from environmental sources) - DNA repair slows as w age - Mutations can be inherited ONLY if occurs in a sex cell (sperm or egg) * Mutation on sex chromosomes will be passed onto next generation - Mutation is only source of new variation in populations a) Point Mutations --> incorrect base pairing (replacement of a single nitrogen base w
More Less

Related notes for ANTHROP 2FF3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit