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Anthropology Exam Review.docx - ***COMPLETE SUMMARY***

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McMaster University

Anthropology Study Notes Chapter 1   – Introduction: What is Anthropology? The study of humanity viewed from the perspective of all people at all times. Anthropologists are interested in all aspects of humanity and human nature. Biological Approach  we need to look at humans through the perspectives of both biology and culture Subfields of Anthropology: - Cultural Anthropology - Linguistic Anthropology - Archaeology - Biological/Physical Anthropology Characteristics that sets humans apart from animals: 1. Bipedalism o Resulted in several important skeletal changes:  Position of foramen magnum in the skull  Hominid spine has two distinctive curves (thoracic and lumbar. Spine keeps the trunk centered above the pelvis)  Human pelvis is short and broad  Lower limbs are elongated  Big toe is enlarged and in line with other toes 2. Nonhoning chewing o Teeth are used for gripping/holding, not slashing/cutting 3. Hunting o Humans use tools and cooperative behaviour, and are able to travel at longer distances 4. Speech o Only species that communicate by talking. The shape of the hyoid bone is unique in humans and reflects the ability to speak 5. Dependence on domesticated food o Humans domesticate a wide variety of plants and animals to use as food and other products 6. Complex material culture o Part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments o The earliest human tool is the oldowan Key Figures JF Blumenbach  came up with 5 racial categories: Caucasian (white), Mongolian (yellow), Malayan (brown), Ethiopian (black), American (red) Ales Hrdlicka  hypothesized that Aboriginal people colonized the Americas by migrating across the Bering Strait Earnest Hooton  large scale study on Native American skeletal collection; came to the conclusion that races can be identified by a number of distinct characteristics Franz Boas  relied on the Scientific Method; focused on collecting evidence for testing hypotheses and answering questions about past and living people - Scientific Method is a way of knowing the world around us based on observation, resulting in an ever-expanding knowledge base. Charles Darwin  came up with an explanation for the observed diversity in nature (natural selection) Chapter 2   – Introduction to Evolutionary Theory Great Chain of Being - Creator gave “radiance” first to humans - Other animals created later, but with less “radiance” - The universe is “full” - All forms of life linked and necessary - Extinction not possible - Persisted through to the 19 century Key Figures Carolus Linnaeus  the father of taxonomy. He created a binomial nomenclature (naming system using genus and species, e.g., homo sapiens) Jean-Baptise Lamarck  theory of acquired inheritance (individuals could develop characteristics beneficial to survival through their lifetime and pass them on to future generations. Traits could be lost through disuse). James Hutton  argues that processes that drive the natural world today are the same as those that prevailed in the past Charles Lyell  argues that landscape developed over long periods of time, and that the earth is very old Georges Cuvier  has fossil evidence of extinction. He believes that change of life forms occurs through sudden catastrophic events Charles Darwin  proposed natural selection as a mechanism for evolution. He hypothesized that surviving offspring had characteristics advantageous for acquiring food. - Natural Selection: biological characteristics that enhance survival from generation to generation - Blending Inheritance: theory that states the phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of the parents phenotypes Gregor Mendel  experimented with pea plants to test blending inheritance. He discovered that plants don’t blend. Rather, each gene has two alleles and each allele is either dominant or recessive (Mendelian inheritance) Evolutionary Synthesis - Combination of Darwin’s theory of evolution and Mendel’s theory of heredity - Causes of evolution includes: 1. Mutation • A new gene could appear as a result of spontaneous change in an existing gene. The only source of new genetic change. 2. Gene flow • The diffusion or spread of new genetic material from one population to another of the same species. 3. Genetic drift • Random change in allele frequency from one generation to the next, with greater effects in small populations. 4. Natural selection Chapter 3   – Genetics Cell Types - Prokaryote (single-celled bacteria with no internal compartment) - Eukaryote (organisms with internal compartments separated by membranes) o Somatic cell (diploid cell that produce organs, tissues, etc.) o Gametes (sexual reproductive cells that are haploid and can unite with a gamete of the opposite sex to form a new organism) DNA Molecule - Nuclear DNA is homoplasmic (same in every cell) - Genome (complete set of chromosomes for an organism or species that represents all the inheritable traits) - Mitochondria (energy-producing organelles in eukaryotic cells) - Adenosine Triphosphate (important cellular molecule created by the mitochondria and carrying the energy necessary for cellular functions) - Nucleotide (building block of DNA, made up of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a single nitrogen base) o Sugar and phosphate are the same throughout the DNA, the bases can be:  Adenine (A) always paired  Thymine (T) with each other  Guanine (G) always paired  Cytosine (C) with each other Mitosis - Zygote produces identical copies of itself multiple times - Involves one DNA replication followed by ONE cell division - Diploid cell divides to produce two cells, each of which also have full set of chromosomes Meiosis - Involves one DNA replication followed by TWO cell divisions - Cross-over (process by which homologous chromosomes partially wrap around each other and exchange genetic information during meiosis) - Recombination (exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes, resulting from a cross-over event) o Genes that are close to each other on a chromosome are less likely to recombine (haplotypes)  Haplogroups are groups of related haplotypes Ribonucleic Acid – RNA - Has some nitrogen bases as DNA, except uracil replaces thymine - Messenger RNA (mRNA)  the molecules that are responsible for making a chemical copy of a gene needed for a specific protein for the transcription phase of protein synthesis - Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)  a fundamental structural component of a ribosome - Transfer RNA (tRNA)  molecules that are responsible for transporting amino acids to the ribosomes during protein synthesis Genes - Structural genes are responsible for body structures (hair, blood, other tissues) - Regulatory genes turn other genes on and off and are an essential activity in growth and development o For example, if the genes that determine bones didn’t turn off at a certain point, bones would continue to grow well beyond what would be acceptable Mendel’s First Law: Law of Segregation - It states that the two alleles for any given gene are inherited during gamete production - Only one of the two alleles are present in the ovum/sperm Chapter 4   – Genes and their Evolution Deme local populations of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring Gene pool  all the genetic information in the breeding population Reproduction isolation  only mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material Mutation - The only source of new genetic variation in a population - There are two types of mutation: o Spontaneous mutation, which have no known cause o Induced mutation, which are caused by specific environmental agents, usually associated with human activity - Point mutation  replacement of a single nitrogen base with another base, which may or may not affect the amino acid for which the triplet codes - Synonymous point mutation  neutral point mutation in which the substituted nitrogen base creates a triplet coded to produce the same amino acid as that of the original triplet - Nonsynonymous point mutation  a point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a different amino acid than that of the original triplet. This can have dramatic results for the person carrying it - Frameshift mutation  change in a gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases, which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearranged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation - Transposable elements  mobile pieces of DNA that can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosomes Gene Flow - The exchange of genetic material between two or more populations - Similarity increases the closer one population is to the other - Gene flow and genetic variation are highly influenced by social structure - ABO blood group system provides evidence of gene flow across large regions Chapter 5   – Biology in the Present Is Race a Valid, Biologically Meaningful Concept? - Blumenbach believed that human skulls were shaped differently according to their race. He argued that there are 5 so-called races: Caucasoid, Ethiopian, Mongoloids, American Indians, and the Malays - Boas was the first to challenge this approach. He found that skulls do have a difference in size, but only so much that the difference could only be seen by mathematical calculations - Lewontin found that most variation occurred across human populations regardless of racial makeup - Cline  specific biological traits generally follow a geographic continuum. For example, skin colour changes in a gradient from dark to light. The single strongest factor in determining skin pigmentation is exposure to ultraviolet radiation Life History - Human growth cycle, which consists of 3 stages: 1. Prenatal stage  begins with conception and ends with birth 2. Postnatal stage  neonatal period (first month), infancy (second month to end of third year), childhood (ages 3-7), juvenile period (7-10 for girls, 1-12 for boys), puberty, adolescence (5-10 years after puberty). 3. Adult stage  includes reproductive period and senescence (period of time after childbearing years) Human Adaptations - Genetic adaptation  occurs at the population level via natural selection - Developmental adaptation  occurs at the level of the individual during a critical period of growth and development, especially childhood - Acclimatization  occurs at the individual level and can occur anytime during a person’s life. The change is not inherited and can be reversed (i.e., tanning) - Cultural adaptation  involves the use of material culture to make living possible in certain settings - All adaptations have one purpose, which is to maintain normal functioning of all organs and physiological systems - Humans are homeothermic (they maintain a constant body temperature) o This is important for brain function, limb function, and general body mobility o Responses to heat include vasodilation (expansion of the blood vessels near the body’s surface), sweating… o First response to cold stress is vasoconstriction (decrease in blood vessels beneath the skin) Bergmann’s Rule - In mammals, body size is greater in colder climates - Increased mass relates to the decrease in surface area - Allows for greater heat retention and reduced heat loss Allen’s Rule - In colder climates, shorter limbs are more adaptive - More effective at preventing heat loss - Greater exposed surface area = greater loss of heat and energy Chapter 6   – Primates: Our Closest Living Relatives Primates are adapted for life in the trees (they are arboreal), have a dietary plasticity (eat a variety of foods), and have an increased parental investment. Common Primate Traits - Large brain size o Large in relation to body size and weight o Well-developed in areas dealing with visual acuity, processing tactile sensation, and coordination of the two - Prehensile hands and fingers o Can be used as exploratory tools o Tactile pads that enhances touch - Opposable thumbs - Clavicle (collar bone) o Maintains the positioning of arms - Separate radius and ulna o Two bones of forearm are separate, not fused, and rotate easily - Binocular and stereoscopic vision o Stereoscopic vision and enclosed eye orbits increases visual brain centers o Permits 3D perception - Shortened snout o Reduced reliance on smell - Dietary plasticity - Parental investment o Lower period between births o Increased parental care means that there is an extended care of offspring Anthropoids - Majority of primates are anthropoids - Increased emphasis on vision - Eyes are better adapted for daytime vision and colour vision - Reduced snout Prosimians - Long nose with moist snout - Pronounced dependence on hearing and smell - Most are nocturnal - Tend to have multiple births Old World Monkeys (Cattarrhines) - Tough sitting pads on their ass (such as a baboon) - Nostrils are close together and point downwards - Most diverse and successful primates New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines) - Nostrils are round and separated by a wide nasal septum - Mainly arboreal - Prehensile tails Superfamily Hominoidea: composed of 3 families - Lesser apes o Southeast Asia o Frugivores o More primitive than other apes - Great apes (orangutan, gorillas, chimpanzee, bonobo) - Humans Chapter 7   – Primate Behaviour Key Figures Jane Goodall  documented through words and on film that chimpanzees used tools and that they regularly hunted other primates and animals. Documented key elements of primate societies and primate social behaviour Louis Leakey  interested in human origins and believed that studying chimpanzees in the wild would be a window onto the behaviour and social organization of early humans Primate Residence Patterns - Social groups are influenced by factors such as food availability, environment, and competition - Six main types of primate residence patterns: 1. One-male, multifemale • Polygnous  one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring 2. One-female, multimale • Polyandrous  one reproductively active female, several adult males, and their offspring 3. Multimale, multifemale 4. All-male 5. One-male, one-female • Monogamous  adult male, adult female, and their offspring 6. Solitary • Interaction between another organism is only for sexual activity Primate Reproductive Strategies - A males primary goal is to physically compete amongst other males for access to reproductively mature females o Results in natural selection of large bodies and large canines in male primates (this is called sexual selection) - Females compete with each other for resources to take care of their offspring Cooperation in Primates - Examples include sharing of food, warning calls when predators approach, grooming, etc. - Some behaviours are altruistic, meaning that the action is beneficial to others, but is
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