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Bridget O' Shaughnessy

Levels of Analysis: Unit 1 ▯ ▯ Levels of analysis: • psychological: intuitive level, thoughts, emotions, memories • biological: physiological mechanisms • environmental: how social, cultural and learning interactions affect Developmental Perspective: •How behaviours develop over a lifespan • Challenges when studying groups of ppl (babies, children, special needs children). Behaviorist Perspective: •Watson & Skinner: •Mind = black box (should not be looked into, off limits, outside of science) •Watson believed: nurture vs. nature •Visible behavior = only valid measure of psychology. •Role of environment = strong influence on behavior. •Behavior modification: good/pleasant--repeat...bad--don’t repeat Cognitive Perspective: •Psychology had to be studied from the processes of the brain: Internal processes (thoughts, learning, attention) •Models = abstract representation of how mind function. oThey simplify complex processes. omodels must be tested and compared with what we know oabandon old model for new model if better Biological Perspective: • Reductionism: all behavior = reduced to biology of brain • Branches / Extensions: cognitive and behavioural neuroscience. •Neuroimaging tools = used to examine brain (MRI- structure focused, functional MRI – change in chemistry focused. ) Evolutionary Perspective: • Looks @ influence of environmental / genetic factors on behaviours • looks at ultimate cause •Looks across many generations of species. Socio-Cultural Perspective: •Looks @ factors that influence the behavior of individual & group • ex. influence of individual on group, group on individual, group on group UNIT 2: RESEARCH METHODS Scientific Method: •How to collect and analyze information • Theory: not specific (ex: energy drinks improve memory) •Hypothesis: specific – what your trying to find out (students who take energy drinks should show improved test performances) • Research Method: how hypothesis will be tested •Collect Date: taking outcomes of test •Analyze Data: understand date, trends, relationships. •Report Findings: publish in scholarly journals •Revise Theories: include new info into understanding – apply to world. •Reliability: same output with same input (step on scale many times in a day – input = produces # output – not cupcakes) •Construct Validity: ability to test something it’s suppose to test (not if: step on scale to measure IQ). ▯ Ways To Collect Data: Case Study: • Single Detailed examination of a particular person •Provides initial facts, doesn’t manipulate (take results given to us) •Problems: not able to compare to others (or general population), subjective (looking for certain support). Correlational Studies (direct observation): •Look @ existing relationships btw pairs of variables (ex: diet and life expectancy) •No manipulation. • Positive, negative, zero correlations – measures one variable to predict another •Correlation coefficient (1 / -1) •Problems: Cant tell cause & effect, third party variables, difficult to explain rational of observed behaviors, subjective interpretation. Experiments: •Researcher makes something happen (manipulates variables) •Binary Variables: only 2 possibilities (On/off). One option = constant •Compound Variables: variables not measured yet still could have an effect (gender, time of day). •Problems: artificial setting (lab) & results may not translate to real world setting, ethic / moral constraints. Interview: •Adv: one-one-one, behavior info which may not be able to observe •Problems: level of comfort, un/intentional dishonesty, memory lapse. Questionnaire: • Adv: info on behavior which may be difficult to observe, simple to collect from large numbers, self-report observation (directed by self) •Problems: cant asses truthfulness, wishful thinking, memory lapses. Conducting Experiment: •Hypothesis: using anecdotal evidence (evidence gathered from others / self experience). • Experiment: tool used to measure variable oIndependent Variable: manipulated by scientist oDependent Variable: observed as outcome (changes as one manipulates) Control Groups: •Experiment / control groups •Within-subject design: same subject manipulating independent variable (have / haven’t taken drink)—since same person experimental and control groups are as similar as can be oSubject to practice effect: improved performance over time in experiment. •Between Subject Design: 2 groups (1 control) – more subjects (similar ppl btw groups – not all same type of people) oConfounding variable:systematic difference present even before manipulating independent variable. (no effect on results but can confuse us) Sampling: •General group we are trying to learn about = population •Group to test/ collect data from = sample. •Random sample: choose ppl at random (reduces potential bias towards specific group) •Random Assortment: assigned ppl randomly to control / experiment group (eliminates any bias btw groups) Conducting an Experiment: Subject Biases: •Participants actions can influence the results outside of manipulation •Placebo affect: person reacts to treatment that has no effects. ocounter this effect by doing mock treatment. ex. give both groups similar tastin/ looking products so that they don’t know if they are taking the real thing or not •Blinding: ppl don’t know if belong to control / experiment group and which treatment they are receiving •Experimenter Bias: experimenter actions promote the result they wish to achieve. •Double Blind: experimenter / participants don’t know which group they belong to. Scientific Research: •Descriptive stats: present info about data at a glance – to give overall results (mean, median mode) •Inferential stats: • Histogram: # times values appear in sets •Frequency Distribution: distribution of frequent values •Measures of Central Tendency: oMean (very susceptible to outliers) oMedian (not affected by outliers) • Standard Deviation: measure of data points from the mean oSmall base = small standard deviation oLarge base = large standard deviation (higher chance or variability / to occur by chance) ▯ Inferential Statistics: •Stats which allow us to make assumptions about the data. Hypothesis Testing: •If hypothesis is correct – data collected from both groups = drawn from 2 diff distributions •T-Test (probability of chance): considers each data point to see probability of getting it by chance •P-Value (result of T-Test): if difference is large enough = more likely by chance o<0.05 = statistically significant (difference caused from true difference in group and not by random chance) Observational Research: •Hypothesis tested by: strength / direction of relationship btw 2 variables • Observational research without manipulations: cancer diff btw smokers / non smokers (didn’t alter anything) Correlation: •Measures strength of 2 variables • Stronger when closer to 1 (positive correlation) or -1 (negative correlation) or = 0 ▯ no correlation •Correlation doesn’t equal causation oIce cream doesn’t cause allergies ▯ •Construct: describing a concept in a general way – hard to measure in practice •Operational Definition: exact definition of vague term / idea • (can be objectively measured) Levels of Analysis Approach: diff perspectives that give info about diff aspects of a research question oMultiple levels of answers = best well-rounded answer •Paradigm: set of assumptions about the kind of research questions that can be asked (not one correct paradigm) Inductive Reasoning: •Specific observation (facts) ▯ general theory (allows us to described the observations) •Ex: cats & dogs are warm blooded. Therefore all 4 legged animals are warm blooded (b/c animals had 4 legs were warm blooded) Deductive Reasoning: •General theories ▯ specific ideas Test theories by making specific predictions that haven’t been • observed directly Exelephants must be warm blooded. blooded ▯ therefore: •Supports theory – but not proven theory (hasn’t accounted for all 4 legged animals) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: UNIT 3 Classi•al Conditioning: Asimportant stimuli ex. Pavlov dog (conditioned to salivate bc of bell even before food) •UR – biologically determined reflex (to US) – no prior learning •CR – response only after learning contingency b/w CS and US. ▯ CS—paired with US to create learned contingency CS: Conditional Stimulus CR: Conditional Response ▯ ▯ - a neutral event that is paired - a learned response that is contingency to produce a learned neutral event following learning ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ US: Unconditional Stimulus UR: Unconditional Response ▯ ▯ triggers a response withoutnt that naturally follows the US (nohat requiring previous learning training)
 ▯ ▯ Acquisition: •Process by which a contingency b/w CS & US is learned – happens in very early trials. ex: ▯ Short-Delay Conditioning: •CS then US (little time between) oWill reach an asymptote CR fastest •Interval too large = less effective •No interval= less effective (no anticipation?) • Ex: placing curved road signs: too late/right before = useless. too far ahead = might forget 
 Extinction: Lasting Effects: •As long as CS continues to be reliable cue for US = contingency remains •If CS is no longer a reliable cue, CR will eventually fade Extinction: •Loss of CR when CS no long predicts US. •Process: Repeating CS alone (w/out US) many times ▯ CR disappears eventually, Techniques: •Either by being erased (less effective) •Extinction through new learning: learning that CS will no long predict US . Spontaneous Recovery: • Extinction: makes new learned response (CS without US – UR fades) •Extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response •Rest period: CS still elicits a CR oSuggests CS not unlearned, just new contingency learned for same CS. oReacquisition faster than original conditioning Renewal: •response extinguished in diff environment than acquired (rehab). •CR same as environment where actual CR took place. ▯ ▯ Generalization & Discrimination: Stimulation Gradient/ stimulus generalization: •Classical conditioning of learned responses to variety of stimuli •CS paired with US to create contingency oStimuli similar to CS will also produce CR. ex. bit by one dog and scared of all of them oWhistle to warn about bombs – creates fear response (whistle of similar htz will produce same fear) Generalization Gradient: Person shocked for a specific tone ▯ creates response of expectation of being shocked—conditioned fear •Presents various tones •Tones most similar to original (CS) will produce greatest response (CR) oLess and less fear the greater difference in tones oNormal distribution of responses according to diff tones is called generalization gradient Bit by a dog: • Dogs most similar to kind that bit you will produce greatest amount of fear. Meaning: •Allows variety of CS’s to emit same CR – to some degree Generalization & Extinction: Tested tones without shocking •Largest loss in CR response: highest CS (original tone of shock) – know that tone is the one to specifically shock you – reaction goes down when realize it wont. Discrimination Training: •Restricting range that a CS emits a CR •Ex: fear of poodles – shown images of other breeds – CR for the specific CS will also go down BUT NOT ORIGINAL •Ex: fearing 500hz shock: eliminate fear of 600hz (tone without shock) ▯ CR for 600hz will diminish (others remain the same) CS+ / CS- (discrimination) •CS+ (500hz) ▯ US (shock) ▯ UR (fear) oPredicts presence of US (shock) •CS- (600hz) ▯ US (nothing) ▯ UR (nothing) oPredicts absence of US (no shock) oCreates absences in generalization gradient. ▯ Phobias & Therapies: • Phobias can result from parents fear: oCS: snake US (parents fear) 
 CR: fear UR: fear •2 main methods to treat phobias: implosive therapy and systematic desensitization Extinction method: •Present CS w/out US ▯ CR fading •Problem: ppl wont want to expose self to CS Implosive Treatment: •Confront with fear (CS : snakes) without US (biting) •= LARGE INITIAL EXPOSURE •Problems: potentially traumatic, ppl have to do willingly. Systematic Desensitization: • Gradual exposure of CS : start at far end of gradient and work way to strongest over time. •(stuffed snakes, pictures, garden snakes, bigger snakes, anaconda) • Problems: ppl have to do it willing to deal with anxiety Others: •Antabuse (drug making u feel sick if intake alcohol) ▯ sickness associated with alcohol (and will avoid it) • Problems: avoidance (not taking meds wont lead to sickness) ▯ Homeostasis and Compensatory Responses: Homeostasis: •balance of internal mechanisms Compensatory Responses: •Processes which counteract something – creating balanced homeostasis. •Ex: too much sugar: body produces insulin to regulate it Role of Conditioning: •Sugar example: •CS: intake of sugar US: increase blood sugar = insulin release 
 CR: same flavor cues ▯ CR of insulin release UR: “ “ •Diet soda: expected sweet taste (CS) – contingency btw same taste and + sugar (US) ▯ body releases insulin (CR / UR) oLower blood sugar ▯ hunger = eat more = gain weight Addictions: •CS: environment that normally take drugs US: drug effect 
 CR: body counter adaptation (body must maintain homeostasis – effects to counteract drug effect) – feeling low •After many times: environment cues - auto-trigger body’s counteractions to drugs (preparing for the possible intake) Withdrawal & Environment Specificity: •Over exposure: drug effects decrease (tolerance) oHappens in usual drug environment •Each drug intake: CR grows in strength •Widrug effects – taking drugs will counter-act CR and returnr body to homeostasis. •Meaning: drug rehab centers: not exposing ppl to cues paired with drugs (home environment) Extinction of diff environment •Po(keep taking larger amounts). Take larger amount in diffonment environment – body not use to it (not ready with counter responses – NO CR) ▯ overdose. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING: UNIT 4 Instrumental Conditioning: •Learned contingency b/w behaviours and consequences (requires training) Thorndike: cat in box, able to see food (motivation) – has to pull rope to open •Predicted: after first accidental escape – would do it immediately. (escape time would immediately go down) • Actually: gradually decreased over time (random behavior that led to nothing – went down) oLeading to only correct target behavior (pulling string) oNo “aha” moment like humans, only trial-error •Operant Conditioning: behaviours that cause the consequences – voluntary behavior operate based on environment to produce change •Reinforcers: primary (intrinsic: food water, mate) oSecondary (learned through previous learning: pieces of paper / metal ▯ learned value assoc. w/ primary reinforcers) Law of Effect: Positive & negative reinforcers •Reinforcers: stimuli presented with a response ▯ change in rate of response •Stamped out: random behavior eliminated • Stamped in: correct escape behavior maintained •Followed by: satisfying effect (likely to occur again – good food) oUnsatisfying effect (not likely – rotten food) ▯ Types of Instrumental Conditioning: Reward Training: presentation of positive reinforcer (PP), increases frequency of response •Give treats when behavior is done (reward for actions) Punishment: presentation of Negative reinforcer (PN). • Decreased behavior – punishment after behavior •Skinner: authority figure who inflicts punishment = becomes signal of pain (classical conditioning) ▯ fear of person (damage relationships) Omission Training: removal of positive reinforcer (RP), decreases behaviour •Take away privileges (timeouts) •Remove tv, no access to toys (removal or a something pleasurable) Escape Training: removal of negative reinforce (RN), increase behaviour • Wanting something negative removed •Loud music - want removed so bang on the walls. • •Rat pressing on button to escape getting shocked Best when: consequences immediately follow response ▯ ▯ ▯ Acquisition & Shaping: Contin•encies: Process of acquisition leads to learning the contingency b/w responses and its consequences Graphing Responses: •Shows when rewarded behavior occurs / rate of responding over time •Rise then plateau (when reinforcement is given) Auto-shaping: •Small simple task learned by self • Learn contingency without explicit training, (associate through random behaviour) •Pigeon pecks button to get food. Shaping: •Shaping by successive approximation: Complex behavior broken down to smaller steps, gradually built up to full response hope to be conditioned •Each separate response/step rewarded through reward training •Skinners ping pong pigeon / water skiing squirrel. ▯ Generalization and Discrimination: •SD ▯ response ▯ reinforcement (discriminative stimulus – contingency is “on” / relevant) oex. parents home is SD for response of getting desert if eating vegetables. •Sδ delta or S- ▯ response ▯ no reinforcement (when contingency is not valid / doesn’t apply / “off”) oex. grandparents home is S-, no desert Generalization of SD: red key • Red key = highest response. Other lights closer (green, orange that look the same will potentially produce similar responses) •Ex: child’s politeness: SD = presence of adult ▯ response (politeness) ▯ reinforcement (praise) oMay not be as strong without SD around. •Training with SD and SD- can lead to better discrimination Extinction: polite kid •Parents don’t give reward for being polite (every time) ▯ stop being polite Discrimination: •Only polite to those who reward him & isn’t polite to those who don’t. Difference btw CS & SD: •CS: reflex / automatic response •SD: sets condition for response (voluntary) ▯ ▯ ▯ Schedules for Reinforcement: Continuous Reinforcement (CRF): after every correct response Partial Reinforcement Schedule (PRF): only some responses (either by total # of responses or time) – more resistance to extinction. Ratio •chedules: based on # responses Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement after set # times – FR1 = after each. FR10= after 10 responses ocan’t have too much large gaps b/w reward—loose interest opause and run pattern: pause with inactivity before beginning nxt run of responding ▯ ▯ •Variable Ratio (VR): set avg of # times (diff each time). High rates of responding (don’t know when reward – always have to be ready) Variable Schedules: based on # times since last reinforcement •Fixed Interval (FI): first correct response after fixed amount of time (study for quiz then don’t study and the study again when nxt quiz is coming) scallop graph – peak at end. FI-10= reward after 10 minute ▯ ▯ •Variable Interval (VI): first correct response after avg amounts of time – VI-10= reward after and average of 10 min ocan receive reinforcement at any time orespond at steady rate to make sure didn’t miss a reward opportunity ▯ ▯ LANGUAGE: UNIT 5 Sets Language Apart from Other Communication •Regular: rules and grammar – able to be reorganized •Arbitrary: sound doesn’t describe the word (cat doesn’t describe what word is) •Productive: no limit to combining words to describe anything – limit to sounds and combos of words •Symbolic: diff words mean diff things in diff cultures (culturally defined) • Rule governed: each combo has rules which make language make sense Whorf-Sapir Hypothesis: •Language influences our thoughts & the way we perceive the world • We think to self in native language. •Evidence: cultures only have words for 1, 2 many (many could be 3-99 which couldn’t be understood) – lacks words to distinguish. •Counter evidence: one word for older male relative – but can distinguish between them all (uncle, grandfather) oSome have one word for each relative (Korean) ▯ Structure of Language: Morphemes: smallest unit which can convey information • (table)(cloth) = 2 •(table)(s) = 2 (s gives indication of multiple) Phonemes: •Breaking down of morphemes •/d/o/g/ /ch/ai/r • k/v/t – many other languages but not English Syntax: •Rules that control how sentences are put together (grammer) •Ex: French = gender of each word Semantics: •Meaning of each words • Could have perfect syntax but not sematic meaning. ▯ Language Development: Timeline: •12 weeks – cooing 12weeks C • 16 weeks – acknowledge noises (turns head) 16weeks A •6 months – imitate sounds 6mths I • 1 year – babble 1year B •2.5 years – vocab >850 2.5yrs 850 •1.5 – 6 years = vocab rapid increase Language Comprehension: Segmentation Problem: •Person speaking new language sounds very fast – not able to break down speech into word units. •Children who have good speech segmentation (able to pick out repeated / familiar sounds) = higher vocab. •Implications: potential for infant screening test to predict later language problems (possible early treatment) Infant Directed Speech: •Mothers use higher pitch / exaggerated pitch changes – helps to segment child’s speech ▯ Universal Phonetic Sensitivity: Phonemes Sensitivity: • Phonemes in other languages adults cannot distinguish, children can •Universal Phoneme sensitivity: can distinguish btw all sounds Werker’s head turn: •Child’s head turn to discriminate new sound from others •Children = as good with foreign phonemes as ppl from that culture. oCant distinguish non-native sounds •Meaning: easier for child to learn new language when young / recognize new phonemes. ▯ Accents: foreign accent syndrome: •Person develops a foreign accent (brain damage / stroke) •Broca’s area (speech production) •Cerebellum (motor coordination – ability to pronounce phonemes) ▯ Theories of Language Development: Social Learning Theory: •Imitation: mom says word – so child says back •Operant: reinforcement – parent gets excited when child says word • Evidence for: Geenie: without explicit exposure to language - it will not develop properly. •Evidence Against: too rapid / complex to by imitation / reward. oOnce learned: words are combined into models not heard before / errors not heard in adult speech Early •anguage: Ovare similar: applies rule too broadly – to many things that oDoggy – all 4 legged creatures = doggy •Under extension: apply to only specific object oDog = only one specific stuffed dog of hers •Telagraphic Speech phase: short sentences containing most of the information (where teddy?) •Over regularizations: using grammatical rule too broadly (runned – ran) Innate Mechanism Theory: •All born with mechanism which allows to learn language •All languages follow fundamental underlying concepts •Chomsky’s LAD: language acquisition device oAll languages follow certain rules ob/c innate mechanism: allow to understand / use universal rules •Psychological Response: predisposition to exposure self to sounds / language in the brain. •support: Spontaneous signing by those who haven’t learned it previously. •Critics: monkeys show specific neuro-responses to some aspects of language – not all. Interactionist Theory: •Combined nurture / nature •Acquire by: testing, evaluating about rules of language. •Influences: maturation of brain, social interaction, cognitive preparedness. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ PROBLEM SOLVING / CATEGORIZATION: UNIT 6 Problem Solving: Deductive / Inductive Reasoning: •Deductive: idea (it will rain) ▯ conclusion (ground will be wet) – generalization ▯ conclusion • Inductive: info (ground is wet) ▯ general idea (must have rained) - observation of specific case ▯ general •Arch of knowledge: general theory + deductive reasoning ▯ facts oFacts + inductive reasoning ▯ theories (general ways of thinking) Insight Problems: •Functional Fixedness: difficult to see alternative uses for common objects (candle & bulletin board) ▯ Intelligence Testing: Qualities of a Test: • Reliability: measures ability to produce consistent results. •Validity: measures what researchers claims to be measuring. •Stanford –Binet intelligence test: diff amount of reasoning for diff versions of age group (intelligence scale) Charles Spearman & G: •One generalized intelligence behind all others (does well on one test, will do well on all others) Multiple Intelligence: •Gardner’s 8 Intelligence: each type independent from others •Critics: that they were interrelated: person did well on one would do well on most others as well. ▯ Human Intelligence: Weschler Scale: •WAIS: Weschler’s Adult Intelligence Scale •WISC: Wschler’s Intelligence Scare for Children. •IQ – standardized test comparing results to large sample. Genetic & Environment: •Identical twins = higher correlation of intelligence vs. fraternal • Mean scale for IQ test steadily increasing (raw score = rising) = Flynn effect ▯ Piaget & Intelligence Test: Piaget: •Active learning: incorporating new info from environment with known info •Schema: mental framework of interpreting the world (frown = unhappy) • Assimilation: incorporating new info into existing world •Accommodation: modifying existing schemas to allow new info 4 Stages of Development: (S) Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years): affect change on environment, act with intention. •Complete stage when: objects continue to exist when not in sight (object permanence) (P) Preoperational Stage (2-7): • Egocentrism (only understands own perspective – 3 mountain task). •Seriation: complete when able to place objects in order of magnitude (not able to place sticks in order of length) •Reversible relationships: “I have brother, brother doesn’t have sister” •Conservation: cylinders of milk (ABLE TO DO WITH PASSING STAGE) (C) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 yrs) •Ability to think in abstract terms (F) Formal Operational stage (11+) •fantasy realities. Limitations: some kids develop out of order, relies on understanding language / what is being asked. ▯ Biases and Heuristics: Conformation Bias: •Seeking out info to support hypothesis oDr diagnostic, failing to look for disconfirming evidence Availability Heuristic: •Make decision based on info most easily available. oPerson with British accent must come from UK oProfessor / farming - how easy it comes to mind Representativeness Heuristic: •Info based on average in mind / larger category (comparable known) •Assumes something should match random pattern – should match pattern (gamblers pattern?) • Comparing to a typical case (if it’s likely to happen once, happen again?) ▯ Categorization: •Helps decide best course of action for each situation Functions of Categorization: • Classification: treat objects that appear diff = belonging together •Understanding: understand a situation – 2 ppl arguing. •Predicting: categorizing current experiences with similar past experiences ▯ predict whats gonna happen • Communication: words refer to category (furniture to describe many things) Illusions of the Expert: •Things we are good at seem easy Rules: •Able to understand abstract concepts – but not able to describe them •Difficult to include / exclude items from membership •Easy to decide whether item belongs though ▯ Prototype Theory: Prototype: • Avg / best member of category (compare everything else to internal rep. of category = prototype) •Ex: apple (fruit), robin (bird). •Formed through experience •Categorize new objects by comparing to prototype – takes more time to process less typical members (penguin is a bird? Vs. robin) •Problems: large variability, prototype may change over time ▯ Exemplar Theory: •Search through all examples (lifetime) to compare to current object •Ex: this animals looks like one other dog in memory – must be a dog •Support: more effected by most recent experience oDr. & skin condition Comparing: Inclusion of a single exemplar 2 weeks later: •Prototype theory: doesn’t matter in a single case – blended in to avg stereotype oexplains categorization of simple objects / situations • •Exemplar: any increase to # examples = improve categorization Children are able to change the nature of machines (toasters into teapot) •Basic categorization systems = exist in animals Flynn effect: increase in IQ scores over time / generations (1930s – present) ▯ ATTENTION & MEMORY: UNIT 7 Attention: Selection: •Automatic selection: attention auto drawn to something (flashing light) • Conscious selection: attention relevant to our goals •Problems of selection: filtering out irrelevant info (background) ▯ Automatic & Controlled Attention: •Automatic processes: involuntary processes (captures attention quickly) oSalient info: pops out / hard to miss (sirens) •Controlled Processes: voluntary, conscious attention – objects of interest. Operate more slowly. oEx: driving car: oDifficult to attend to many things (all demanding for attention) Spotlight Model: Selection & Spotlight: Posners Model: • Only focus on one part of environment at one time. •Effects: respond faster / greater accuracy Spatial Cueing Paradigm: •Focus on middle screen – automatic light draws attention to one side – even when asked to look @ other side • Meaning: target destination is faster with subtle (unnoticed) cue oFavors automatic response oAmplifies attention Controlled Processing: •Attention is faster than the eye ▯ Filter Models: Filters and Attention: •Spotlight – spotting a single flow in the grass •Filter = ignoring surrounding objects Broadbent’s Filter Model: • Attention filter selects important info and tunes out other •Experiment: message in 2 ears – have to concentrate / recall only one (shadowing the other) •Wrights shock experiment: ppl able to recall info heard in the unattended ear. • Limits: remember unattended info oCrowd noise = able to focus on own convo – able to detect when releveant info breaks through (name) – caputures attention Triesman’s Dual Filter Model: •Filter 1: physical: evaluate based on pitch, intensity, to find most relevant info. • Filter 2: semantic: searches meaning / relevance oAble to override physical filter b/c of its meaning. oInfo imputed for attention. ▯ Stroop Task: • Congruent: colour same as word •Incongruent: colour diff from word •Effect: faster when congruent oDoesn’t require to ignore irrelevant info •Attention: not separated into meaning / not meaningful. •Controlling: actively ignore word dimension for incongruent (less stroop effect) oHigh congruency = more stroop effect •Automatic effects: automatically look even when trying to ignore the word (and focus on colour). •Controlled effect: actively control & ignore the word oFilters out word if focusing on colour ▯ Visual Search: Real world: •Looking for target surrounded by distractors •Set size: # items have to search through (# ppl in crowd) •Set size effect: Larger = more difficult, what you are looking for is similar enough to other distractors so takes more time to find •Pop-Out effect: rapid visual search to easily pick out target- unaffected by set size •Conjunction search: search defined by 2 + feature (yellow shirt, red cap) •Contextual cueing: knowing something about our world to help oLooking for keys: knowing you usually put them on the table (not in the fridge). ▯ Memory: • Problems with memory metaphors: assumes stored in original form. Types of Memory: • Acquisition: what will be stored? •Storage: how? •Retrieved? Importance of Cues: •Lead to trains of memory •Encoding phase: learning • Retrieval: tested on items learnt Recall & Recognition: •Recall: generating as many as able to remember •Recognition: new / old (presented / not) Forgetting curve: • Remember initially. Increased rate of memory failure over time. ▯ Multi-Store Model: Stimuli / input ▯ short term memory (+ rehearsal) ▯ long term memory George Miller: chunking idea • Remember 7 +/- 2 store in short term memory oChunked into meaningful packets ▯ Serial Position Curve: Primacy Effect: •First info = more likely to be remembered b/c most opportunity to be rehearsed. •Continuous rehearsing multiple times STM ▯ LTM •Improving: rehearsal, probability of LTM storage, recalling at first. Middle info = least recalled Recency Effect: • Newest items replace older (middle) items •Still in STM. •Diminishing recency (making worse): causing distraction (getting info out of STM). Meaning: • Distracting right after encoding = decreased in recency effect (effecting STM) •Waiting 30seconds: recency effect maintained •Immediately recall = no change ▯ Memory Principles: Levels of Processing: •Shallow (physical char.) & deeper (semantic) Craik & Lockhart Multiple Levels of Processing during encoding: • Physical (moderate) – capital letters (worse able to remember) •Acoustic (moderate) – does word sound like ___ (better to remem) •Semantic (deeper) – does it fit in the sentence ___ (best to remem) ▯ Encoding Specificity: •Encode environment as well as all information •Same encoding environment as recalling = better ability to recall. •“ “ internal state ▯ Memory Illusions & Fluency: Loftus & False Memory: •told false memory of self long time ago – 20% believed it happened. •Implications: memory is highly constructive and able to be effected by time & own perceptions – testimonies? •After 3 days – more believed that it happened to them False Memory Implications: •Seamon’s experiment: events preformed / imagined: later recalled doing the events even if they imagined it •Meaning: memory can be mislead into confusing imagined / preformed events •Familiarit: thinking seen something before Fluency: •Those which are familiar = processed more fluently. •Ex: person on a bus – stand out b/c they’re familiar or look funny? Attribution: •Judgment typing together cause & effect •Creating causes to explain feeling of fluency – rational • Ex: seen them on bus before. Becoming Famous Overnight: • Seen name before – rated as famous / well known “fake fame effect” •Names produce feeling of fluency – attributed based by subject ▯ Problems with memory: Barlett’s building blocks: • Memory doesn’t exist until present situation requires us to construct a memory •Building blocks of perception / experience Use them to reconstruct something resembling past experience / something that didn’t occur ▯ PERSONALITY: UNIT 8 Approaches to Personality: Psychodynamic Approach: •Freud: internal structure of mind / way they react = determines how we feel / behave Tripartite Model: •ID: basic instinct ounconscious •Superego: moral principles (from parents / standards) oUnconscious, preconscious, some in conscious • Ego: balance between 2 oAll 3 Defenses: •Protect conscious ego against anxiety from defense mechanisms. • By keeping id impulses out of conscious Repression: •Block id impulses from reaching conscious •Slips through dreams & Freudian slips Denial: • Unconscious ego prevents memory of event •Never becomes conscious Rationalization: •Unconscious ego floods conscious ego with plausible reasons for behavior. • Conscious ego believes that it happened for harmless reasons (justify situations to avoid anxiety) •Ex: didn’t get into fav college: “didn’t want to go anyways” Projection: •Producing thoughts / impulses & make them somone’s elses • Ex: your angry – think someone else is angry at you oGirl doesn’t like you – you don’t like her b/c of it Reaction Formula: •Protect from anxiety by having thoughts / ideas opposite of actual impulses •Ex: mom didn’t want baby – yet overprotective mother ▯ ▯ Displacement: last resort •Redirect forbidden impulses away from source to consciously acceptable target • Take it out on someone else. •Ex: cop gives ticket, person slams home door (taking out on door) ▯ Psychosexual Stages of Personal Development: Oral: • B – 1 YR •Sucking / swallowing (mouth) Anal: •1-3 YRS •Feces, toilet training. Phalic: •3-6 YRS •Oedipus complex: sexual libido for mother oWant mother: afraid of dad (taking penis), enjoy mother through dad (becoming more like him – take on values) • Electra Complex: sexual desire for father oHad penis, mother cut it off (penis envy). Desire dad, want to get rid of mom, becomes more like mom. •b/c intense anxiety – memories blocked (repression) – libodo redirected towards other things / ppl Latency: •6yrs – puberty •libido challenged into non sexual behavior. (decreased libido / sexual desires) Genital: • Increase in libido – direction depends on other previous stages & how it was redirected from mom / dad. Fixations: •Libido left btw stages •Stages don’t disappear – just reduced intensity (biting nails) • Have obsession from specific stage could come into adulthood. ▯ Jung’s Personality Theory: •Libido mo
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