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Hominids .docx

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McMaster University

Neanderthals • - first specimens found in Germany in the 1800s • - most found in western Europe and Central Asia and we don’t really see the species in Africa • - all are extinct, died out about 30,000 years ago • - associated with Mousterian tools • - knives for cutting bones, preparing food, scrapers (used to peel the hyde of the animal • transitional species between H. erectus and H. sapiens (us)… co- existed with us because geographically they have distinct characteristics • well adapted to cold environments, larger jaws and more prognathic (protruding face) —> more accurate interpretation Other Features of Neanderthals: • First to initially bury the dead? evidence found in France • from intentional of burial they learn that they took care of elderly and sick (human like sentiment) • Burial was intentional because the bones were found in particularly good shape • buried on their sides in a flexed position Relationship of Neanderthals and Modern Humans • Most humans have a little Neanderthal in them • 60% of the Neanderthal genome has been sequenced • evidence of interbreeding, humans and neanderthals 1-4% of nuclear DNA is shared Main Points: • All models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa • debates on timing and process New DNA evidence shows we have bit of Neanderthal DNA Homo habilis • - “Handy man” • - ~2.5 -1.8 mya • - relatively larger brain • - reliable evidence
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