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ANTHROP 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Anorexia Nervosa, Medical Anthropology, Harvest


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Tracy Prowse
Study Guide
Final

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Subfields of Physical Anthro
Primates
o Study of primates
o Social behaviour, communication, infant care, reproduction
o Understand natural thangs that‟ve shaped evolution & aspects of human behaviour
Human Biology
o Human growth & development
o Adaptation to environmental extremes
o Human variation in modern pop.
Forensic Anthro
o Anthro & the law; recovered human remains can help solve a murder
Applied Anthro
o Use of data gathered from other subfield used to create solutions
What is the Scientific Method:
Systematic observations of the world
Never- ending knowledge base; things in the world always changing
Empirical, or based on knowledge
Division of Labour:
Women affected by reproductive role; child bearing, nursing, infant care
Foragers:
Ppl whose subsistence pattern is hunting & gathering
Mobile- follow the food
Reciprocity
Food sources: game hunting, fishing, collecting plants & berried and shit
Gender
Mostly = , but related to sources of food
o Ex. Inuit
o b/c diet based on mean, emphasis on male labour
o increased male dominance
Pastoralism:
Raising & caring for large herds of domesticated animals
Horticulture:
Small scale farming using simple technology

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Gender in Pastoralism & Horticultural Societies
Related to control & distribution of produce & goods
Agriculture:
Intensive farming, w/ lots of time, energy & technology
Surplus production to cover their asses for droughts and bad harvests
Sedentism; stay in 1 place
Social stratification
Gender
Increasingly complex… variable degrees of male dominance, depending on local communities
Archaeology of Gender:
Gender roles & relations… not just what did males/females do?
To see how gender affected social dynamics in past societies
What contributions did men/ women make to past societies?
***GRIDING GRAIN THINGY***
Cultural Aspects of Food
Food choices determined by
o Cultural
o Religious
o Environmental
o Economic
o Personal factors
Food is…
Biological & cultural
Linked to status & power
Defining & maintaining social relations
Food Taboos:
DEFINED- the deliberate avoidance of food for reasons other than simple dislike
Pigs; Jews, Ethiopians, Orthodox Christians
Cows; Hindus
Carnivores eaten in few cultures; cannibalism in almost none
***Consequences of breaking food taboo harsher than for breaking food restriction***
2 Types of Food Taboos:
1. Applies to ALL indiv
2. Applies to subset of indiv;; ex. Preggers not supposed to eat raw fish

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Reasons for Food Taboos:
Environment; unsuitable
Medical; unhealthy
Economic; animal more valuable alive
Symbolic; unnatural
Social; to increase cohesion or reinforce diffs
Influences on Food Production & Diet:
Geo
Access to water
Growing conditions; temp
Subsistence Affects:
Settlement patters
Pop density
Division of labour
Foragers:
Small pop.
Little property
Communal sharing- “hxaro”
Open access to land, labour
Pastoralism:
Size & density of pop. varies
Combines subsistence strategies
Eg w/ foraging or small scale farming
Horticulture:
Larger surplus= larger pop.
Slash & burn; plant/burn/rotate
Division of labour
1. The Fertile Crescent
11- 10 000 YA
Domesticated wheat & barley
2. Mesoamerica
~ 7000 YA
Maize, beans & squash
3. Highland/ Coastal Andes
~ 7500- 4500 BP
Llama, alpaca, guinea pig, potato, quinoa
4. China
~8000 YA
Rice & millet
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