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ANTHROP 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Foramen Magnum

Course Code
Tracy Prowse
Study Guide

of 3
Anthropology Exam
2:00 4:00pm (2 hours)
IWC 3 (11)
Worth 35%
Total points 110 MC
40 questions from up to 1st midterm
70 questions since the midterm
Focus on material covered in BOTH lectures and readings
Do review quizzes on Avenue
Identify important concepts
Summarize important ideas and concepts
Don’t waste energy memorizing facts
Required Materials (since midterm) (~70 questions)
Film ‘Codes of Gender’
Class material and readings:
o Early humans (pp. 223-247)
o Trends in globalization/development (pp. 270-282)
o Sex and Gender (pp. 40-52)
o Gender in the archaeological record (pp.47-81)
o Cultural aspects of food (meanings, food taboos) (pp. 97-110, but NOT 102-107).
o Subsistence (pp. 110-130)
o Agriculture and animal domestication (pp. 131-150)
Topics from Midterm (~40 questions)
o What is Anthropology and its subfields
o The scientific method
o Culture and death
o Illness and disease
o Bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology
o No questions from Kochi movie
Characteristics of Hominids
When and where did you see characteristics of being distinctly human
Earliest feature bipedalism
Manual dexterity manipulate objects in finer fashion, making objects, opposable thumbs
Large molar teeth
Brain expansion
Mosaic evolution different characteristics appeared at different times
o Major features associated with bipedalism: shape of knee, how femur articulates
with hip, shape and curvature of spinal column, foramen magnum
o Reasons for bipedalism: gathering food while walking, scavenging
Key features of Australopithecines:
o Bipedal
o Small brains
o Big teeth
o Mix of ancestral and derived traits
Gracile vs robust forms
o Gracile Australopithecus africanus, robust - a. boisei should be able to
differentiate between the two
o a. boisei huge teeth, broad cheek bones, higher brain species were so specialized
that they became extinct
Fossil names you should know:
o Australopithecus (afarensis, africanus) gracile forms
o Australopithecus (robustus, boisei) robust forms
o Homo habilis first evidence of tools
o Homo erectus first species moving around Old World and out of Africa Africa,
Asia, Europe
o Homo sapiens
o Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
o 2.5 mya earliest evidence of tools
o Increase in cranial capacity and complexity and type of tool
Origins of modern humans
o Should know the 3 hypotheses; multiregional model homo erectus left Africa, went
to different locations and there was gene flow, all remained as same species
o Replacement model one group left Africa, all other species became extinct, one
main population survived who were the source of anatomically modern humans
o Hybridization model some gene flow and some replacement
Relationship between us and Neanderthals
o Unique characteristics of Neanderthals short, large nasal apature, robust
skeletons, broad forehead
o Presence of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans
Humans Transforming the Earth
o Pessimists (Malthusian)- overusing the Earth, we’re going to cause damage vs.
Optimists (Logic-of-Growth) we have capacity, technology and intelligence to
adapt to changing environmental conditions
o Technological trends
o Environmental trends
o Impact of the Green Revolution’ – boosting agricultural productivity, associated
disadvantages and advantages
o Population trends
o Loss in biodiversity unintended consequences
Sex and Gender
o Difference between sex and gender
o Sex biological, gender social definition
o Gender roles and gender identity
o Gender stereotypes
o Expression of gender identity
o Case study: ‘Travestis’ of Brazil – culturally constructed attitudes towards
o Case study: Sambia of Papau New Guinea gender roles; rituals and sexuality 3
stages: separation, ritualization, intergration
o Gender in archaeology Catalhoyuk
Cultural Aspects of Food
o Social roles of food
o How we classify food (hot/cold, edible/inedible)
o Food can take on different qualities
o Universals in human food use
o Food restrictions and food taboos restrictions during certain times, pregnant
o Explanations for food taboos environmental, symbolic
o Gender roles of men and women vary according to subsistence strategy (4 different
types; foragers, pastorlists, horticulturalists, agriculturalists)
o Factors influencing food production (geography, water, growing conditions)
o Characteristics of foraging, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture what kinds of
foods (seasonal), what do settlements look like
o Case study Ju/’hoansi
o Case study Basseri
o Case study Zuni
Origins of Agriculture
o Early evidence from the Near East (fertile boomerang)
o Separate areas of agricultural innovation
o Characteristics of domesticated plants and animals
o Impact of agriculture; positive and negative, skeletal characteristics
o Health consequences of agriculture