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ANTHROP 1AA3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Leprosy, Etiology, Postorbital Bone

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Tracy Prowse
Study Guide

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Anthropology: the systematic study of humankind
Historical Anthropology:
oHow did we evolve as humans?
oWhat forces have shaped us over time?
Comparative Anthropology:
oWhat do we all have in common?
oHow do we differ?
oWhat are the reasons for differences?
Contextual Anthropology:
oWhat circumstances, environments and beliefs have
shaped human behavior and understanding?
Holistic Anthropology:
oHow can we understand the picture of human condition,
both biological and cultural?
Subfields of Anthropology (pg 2):
oStudies all aspects of the biology and behavior of human
oConcerned with humans as biological species
oSubfield most closely related to the natural sciences
Osteology: the study of the skeleton, structure and
Understanding the changes in fossils,
Paleoanthropology: the study of human fossil
What does it mean to be human?
Variety of scientific techniques to date, classify
and compare fossil bones to determine the
links between modern humans and their
biological ancestors
Many work closely with archaeologists
Primatology: study of primates and morphological
characteristics to determine evolution

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Forensic Anthropology: The study of human
remains applied in a medico-legal context.
Anthropology and the law, applied approach --
accidental death, crime scene investigation, human
rights investigation
Human Biology: Human growth and development,
adaptation to environmental extremes, human
variation in modern populations
oCan be useful in police investigations with the skeletons
of murders
oStudy of past societies and their cultures using material
remains (tools, ceramics, sites, etc.)
oArtifacts: The material products of past societies, provide
clues to the past
Prehistoric: artifacts of first humans
Historical: artifacts of most recent past, work with
Classical: ancient civilizations, such as Egypt,
Rome, Greece
Ethnoarcheaology: the study of material artifacts
of the past and information on modern users who
understand the use and symbolism of the artifacts
oUsed in preserving threatened sites from housing and
oStudies the construction and use of language by human
oFocuses on the relationship between language and
culture, how language is used within society, and how the
human brain acquires and uses language
Structural: how language works
Sociolinguistics: relationship between language
and social behavior in cultures
Historical Linguistics: concentrates on the
comparison and classification of different languages
to discern the historical links among languages

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oUsed in government agencies to document missing
languages and marketing
oStudy of contemporary cultures and societies
oCulture is a transmitted and learned behavior
oParticipant observation: Conducting their fieldwork in
different areas, cultural anthropologists learn the
language and culture of the group being studied by
participating in the groups daily activities -- become
deeply familiar with the group and can understand and
explain the society and culture of the group
Methodology: participant observation: learn culture
and language by participating in daily activities
Ethnography: description of culture within society
oUsed in government programs to take cultural beliefs and
needs into consideration
oRelated to sociology, psychology, economics and political
Applied Anthropology:
oThe use of data gathered from other subfields of
anthropology in an effort to provide practical solutions to
problems within modern societies
No anthropologist is an expert at all four subfields
Holistic approach: understanding all four subfields
Research crosses over subfields (interdisciplinary)
Focuses on diversity of humans in all contests
Humans are cultural and biological
Popular perceptions about other cultures based on values and
standards of one's own society
Members of one culture become so accustomed to their beliefs
that any other cultural tradition seems bizarre
Universal phenomenon
Anthropological interpretations are evaluated several ways
oThe scientific method: a system of logic used to
evaluate data derived from systematic observation
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