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Final

ANTHROP 3HI3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bionics, Reforestation, Mimesis


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 3HI3
Professor
Dr.Medeiros
Study Guide
Final

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ANTHROPOLOGYOFTHEBODY
Understandingthebodybeyondtheanatomicalandbiological
Bodyisasocialentityaffectedculture,religion
 Anthropologistunderstandthebodyisasubjectiveexperienceoflife
Bodyisviewedprimarilyasaphysicalobjectinsociety
Bodyexistsinthesocial,physical,psychological,conceptualandculturalspace
 Anthropologyofthebodywasnotconsideredafield,untilthe1970sfurtherexaminedinthe
80s.
3TYPESOFBODIES:Individual,SocialandBodyPolitic
Researcherscontinuetograpplewiththethreebodies
Thethreebodiesarewaystothinkabouthowbodiesaresociallyproduced
Differenttheoreticalapproachestothinkingaboutthebodyassomethingthatissocially
influencedbysocietyandculture
ThethreebodiesconceptisausefulconcepttobridgethegapbetweencultureandSociety
1.IndividualBodyreferstotheindividual’sunique,subjectiveexperienceofthebodyand
understandingofhealth
Experiencecanbehighlyvariable,dependingonsocialandculturalnorms
Individualbodyshapesandisshapedbysocialpatternsandinteractionsearlyoninlife
Medicalanthropologiststudyandfocusonthesufferersexperience
2.SocialBody–referstobodyasanaturalsymboltothinkaboutnature,societyandculture
Needtoconsiderthesocialexperienceandroleofsociety
Humanbodyisalwaystreatedasanimageofsociety
Cultureandsocietyshapethesocialbody,ex.Plasticsurgeryandliposuction
MakingtheBodySocial:
Shapeandsizeofthebodycancommunicatestatusandpositioninsociety
Thehumanbodyhasasocialandphysicalreality
Importantinformationaboutage,profession,membership,insociety
Culturaltraitsandpracticesinfluenceideasaboutthenormativebody
Ex.ArtificialdeformationofinfantscalpsinPeruorBindingofthefeetinChina
MakingthebodybeautifulinWesternSocieties:
Westernsocietieshaveculturallyandsociallydefinedstandardsofthebody
Ex.Orthodontic,plasticsurgery,eyelashextensionsandfingernails
ThePaintedandTattooedBody:
Ex.TiwipeopleofAustraliapainttheirfacesasariteofpassageintoadulthood
Menandwomenareinitiatedbydippinghandsintowhitepaintandpaintingtheir
hairspiritwillprotectthemfromillness

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Ex.Samoanstattootheirbodiesusingsharpenedboneorteethasamarkerofone’s
statusinthecommunity
Malesaretattooedmoresignificantlythanfemales
Theimportanceofthesocialbody:
aframeworkforperceivingandinterpretingphysicalandpsychologicalexperiences
TopDownapproachstartswiththebigpicture.Itbreaksdownfromthere
intosmallersegments
Understandingthemacrosocialimplicationsofcultureandsociety
Providesuswithwaytounderstandsocietyitselfandhowitisorganized
3.BodyPoliticreferabilitytoregulatepopulations(socialbody)anddisciplineindividualbodies
Expandsthenumberofsocialcontrolstoregulategroups
Societieswillcreateandsocializethekindofbodiesthattheyneed
Changingthebehaviourofpplsothattheydonotplacethepopulationatrisk
Ourbodiesarepoliticallycontrolledbythegovtinordertobeattheoptimum
healthlevel,inorderuselessresourcesthereforecausinglessburdenonthe
politicaleconomicsofthegovt
EXBMI(whohastherighttosaywhatweightisthehealthiest)
ExBigPharma
Individuallevelillnessisblamedontheindividual
Bodypoliticwillchangethissothatthebodybecomes‘normal’
PowerandControllingPopulations:
Foucault'sapproachtopowerandsurveillanceofthebodyshapesthediscussionofthe
bodypolitic
Thoseinpositionsofauthoritymaintaintheirstatusbymanipulatingthebodiesof
thosebelowthem
Managementofsocietybymeasuringthesocialdeterminantsofhealth
Poverty,inequality,andstressorstounderstandwhypeoplebecomesickand
dieyounger
Protectingthebodythroughstatisticalmethods
Leadstothemedicalizationofthebody
Asaresultofpowerexertedbythebodypolitic
Medicalizationgivingaconditionamedicallabel,usingbiomedicalterms,and
treatingitwithbiomedicine
CultureandBody:
Bodyandcultureareconnectedentities,asindividualsembodytheculturetheylivein
Peopleareawareofotherbodiesthroughbodilysensationsandperceptions
Thebodiesandindividualbodiesaffecthowweperceiveourselfandidentity
Theseidealsareconstantlychanging
tofullyunderstandthebody,onemustunderstandtheculturewithinit
emotionsalsoaffecthowthebodyisexperienced

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CommodificationofBodyParts
Socialandbodypoliticiswhereindividualbodiesareturnedintoobjectsboughtandsold
Thebodypoliticseekstocontrolthesupplyofbodyparts
Commodifyingbodies(examples)
Organtransplantisonewaywherebodypartsarecommodifiedandcontrolled
ReproductiveTechnologies,artificialinsemination,mappinggenomes
thebodyofwomencommodifiedassexworkersinHaiti 
CommodificationsofOrgansandTradeoccurinternationally,bothillegallyandlegally
ManyoftheseeventsareduetoInternationalramifications
Pplselltheirkidneyorotherorgansbecauseofpoverty
InIndiaitiscommontotradekidneystopayformarriagedowryandother
expenses
InBrazil,Poorpeopleselltheirkidneyformoney.ThisisnowalargeMarketto
sellorganstotheMiddleEastandNorthAmerica
Thebodypolitictriestocontrolthetransportationofthebody/organs
Commodifyingbodiesispresentinthethreebodies
Commodificationistheproductofideasandknowledgethathaveanexchangein
value
Altersbodyimageandsenseofself
AHistoryofCommodification
Publicdissectionswerecommoninthe19thcentury
TheAnatomyAct(1831)prohibitedthesaleofdeadbodiesintheUnitedKingdom
individualscannotbeheldcriminallyresponsibletotakethebodyevenafterthe
hospitaltakesitforeducationalpurposes
TransplantsandtheTradeofHumanBodyParts
DiseasePerspective:
organsaresparepartstomakethebodyfunction
IllnessPerspective:
transplantcanchangethesenseofself
Raisesnewethicalquestionsaboutwhatconstitutetheendoflifeormomentofdeath
Firstsuccessfulin1957,transplantsofmostlykidneys,lungs,liver,pancreas
FORSURGEONSOrgansareanobjectandspareparttomakethebodyfunction
normally
PATIENTSTransplantscansociallyandpsychologicallychangeidentity/self;can
restructuretoreflectonwhotheyoncewereandliveanewlife
Individualsaresymbolicallyreborn,whichfurtherraisesethicalquestions
onlifeanddeath
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