review notes-arthis.docx

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Art History
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Neil Mc Kay

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Physical properties: media Formal structure: style; shapes Iconography: symbolism Cultural context: religion; symbolism Techniques Vase painting: black figure and read figure  Painted on Greek ceramic vessels  Both applied on slip: mixed of clay and water  Slip is apply to the surface of a pot and carefully manipulating the firing process in a kiln to control oxygen Firing process 1. Oxygen allow in to kiln to fix oxygen in red shade 2. Oxygen in kiln cuts back in to minimum and vessel turn black; raise temperature until is glass like 3. Allows oxygen back into kiln turning un sling area in to red On black figure decoration on an amphora Ceramic  Using sharp tool (stylus) to cut through the slip to the body of vessal, increasing linear detail  The reddish-purple glass is made of metallic pigment mixed with slip On red figure  Negative spaces is painted black to form and using fine brush dipped in liquid slip Amphoras : only a couple of shapes they used Roman mosaics 1. Tesserae (marbles) are pressed into a soft cement called grout 2. Once the stones were firmly set, grout (soft cement) was used to fill the spaces between the tesserae Fresco: Buon fresco Buon: true Fresco: fresh Fresco secco: dry  Plaster is made form: lime 1. Arricio: thick under coat of plaster 2. Sinopia:under drawing – composition sketched on to arricio 3. Inonaco: thin coat of fine lime plaster over top of sinopia 4. Artist applied pigments, mixed with water, painting in to the intonaco form the down  Giornata (a days work) 5. Determine by how much painting can be done before dry 6. A giornata can be large or small, depends on how much detailed work is required. For example, faces takes longer time to accomplish than other parts Pros:  Painting on to dry plaster  Can be done slowly  Chemical reaction might occur and make the process more durable Cons:  Flakes off more easily  Need to work fast before dries Tempera panel painting: Cennino cennini on panel painting 1. Cover panel with gesso (made from gypsum) to create a sealed ground for painting. 2. The surface is burnished until it resembles ivory. 3. Tempera paint (created of pigments mixed with egg yolk, water and occasionally glue) o Favored by Italian artists o Opaque media with matte surface  Dries really fast hard to make changes  Light does not penetrate it –opaque, matte surface, requires varnish for sheen What kind of varnish was used on tempera panel painting?  Amber: fossilized tree resin  Sandarac resin from cypress tree  Mastic resin form a mastic tree (or shrub)  Venice turpentine Disadvantages: had to be applied in a precise manner because it dried almost as quickly as it was laid down. (A lot of effort needed and it dries quick) Oil painting Pigment suspended in linseed or walnut oil  Dries slowly easy to make changes  Light penetrates it – translucence, create inner glow by painting thin layer called glazes Advantages:  Oil painting takes longer to dry than tempera and changes can be made before it dries.  Paint has time to smooth out so that individual brushstrokes were not visible (surface must be as smooth as an eggshell)  Able to create luminous effects Renaissance perspective Chiaroscuro: The technique of using light and dark areas to create a sense of three-dimension volume Linear perspective orthogonal coverage at vanishing point  Can do linear perspective in two vanishing point (looking more at an angle) Sfumato: blending of colour to make a foggy illusion Intuitive Perspective: shows distance and background Hieratic Scale: artist makes something larger to make it stand out Stain glass e.g. rose window How to make stain glass 1. To heat sand and ash until they melt until they are molten 2. Staining the glass while glass is molten add metallic oxide for color 3. Blow glass and flatten into sheet 4. Using carton as reference, cut individual shapes od color 5. Hot iron to crack glass into rough shapes 6. Grozing: ship away are the edges carefully with an iron tool to smooth out the edges 7. Make and opaque paint from iron fillings ground glass in wine or urine 8. Fire the painted glass shapes in to a kiln to fuse the pain with the surface 9. Assemble the shapes 10.Cames (lead strips) to hold the shapes together 11.Mount the panes on an ironwork frame in the opening for the window Pros:  Decorative Cons:  Expensive  Time consuming  Fragile Why use lead to hold glass to
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