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McMaster University
Art History
Kirstin Patterson

ARTHIST1AA3 FINAL EXAM REVIEW Across the Globe: Art and Grandeur in the 16 to 20 Centuries (P13) Himeji Castle (1601-1609) - Built during Momoyama period (1573-1615) - Rare surviving example of a Japanese castle today and best preserved - Built on mountain in city of Hyogo, Japan - Means of controlling roots between different territories - Originally apart of network forces - Designed to impress and to function as defensive fortification; as aid for military attack - Terumasa – Patron of building - Daimyo – A feudal ward like Terumasa - Gable – Part of a wall that encloses the end of a pitched roof (triangular portion of wall between edges of intersecting roof) o Cusped gable – Curved top of roof - Plaster – Mixture of water, sand, lime o Walls were covered with plaster to ensure fire-proofing o Made walls thicker - Castle also known as White haren castle looking like a bird ready to take flight - Designated National Historic Site - Since 1993, UNESCO World Heritage Site Taj Mahal – Ustad Ahmad Lahori (c.1632-1648) - Mughul period (1526-1858) in Agra, India - Commissioned by Shah Jahan, 3 Emperor - Taj Mahal means Crown Palace - Mausoleum – Monumental building that’s used as a tomb o Designed as a Mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal - Cenotaph – Funerary tomb or monument to someone buried elsewhere - 4 gardens - Palace was made by many collaborators - Ustad Ahmad Lahori – Master Ahmad of Lahor o Chief architect of Taj Mahal - Pietra dura – Italian “hard stone” – refers to use of hard stone to create inlayer work - Inscriptions/calligraphy on exterior represents words from Qu’ran - Iwan – Vaulted hall with arch opening (Islam) - Façade – face of a building - Minaret – tower near or part of mosque used to call people to prayer - Chattri – pavilion (placed on top of mausoleum) - In 1983, designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site Garden Façade of the Palace of Versailles – Louis Le Vau & Jules Hardouin-Mansart (1678-1685) - Versailles, France - Commissioned by King Louis XIV - Chateau – Country house/palace - Arcade – Row of arches; curves structures that span space; series of arches form an arcade Hall of Mirrors (Palace of Versailles) – Jules Hardoin-Mansart & Charles Le Brun (Begun 1678) - Large room that embodies grandeur of the entire palace - Setting for large receptions - Space through which King walked - Candelabra – stands for candles - Scale of room evokes King’s Majesty - Iconographic program – Lays out set of ideas through the iconography; subjects, symbols that connect works of art - King Louis Believed power was bestowed upon him by God Plan of the Garden of the Palace of Versailles – Louis Le Vau & Andre Le Notre (c.1661-1675) - Parterre – Highly structured and ornamental area of garden - Shimmering effect of light on water fountains and cascades - Palace designated UNESCO World Heritage Site Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace – Inigo Jones (1619-1622); Interior paintings by Peter Paul Rubens (1630-1635) - London, England - Large hall used for court entertaining - Inspired by architecture of Palladio - Volute – curving or scroll-like form o Columns with capitals in style of ionic and corinthian order o Volutes are principle declaration of ionic order - Acanthus – genus of plants found extensively in Mediterranean - Engaged – Attached to wall (columns) - Pilaster – Flattened column, rectangular in form rather than rounded and can also be engaged - Segmental pediment – Semi-circular forms - Classicism – Vocab of architectural forms when an architect or patron wants building to embody or project notions of tradition and all its related meanings such as stability - Commissioned by King James l - Masque – Popular spectacles that combined dancing and theatre - Son King Charles l who commissioned individual to create paintings on ceiling - Commissioned ceiling paintings for his father and himself o King Charles later executed for treason o Enemies took over banqueting house Korambo (c.1961) - Papua New Guinea - Ceremonial or spirit house - Abelam – Community that lived in northern part of island - Social status measured by pigs and participation in yam cult - Served as space only entered by men who reach a certain age and who have passed through initiation - Girls, boys and women were not allowed in here - Used for men’s business in community and initiation rituals - Represented men’s power and status and muscular power - Cane & thatch – keeps structure in place; connects poles  made by this o Cane used as strong flexible reed or section of bamboo o Thatch is plant material-like straw - Top point of Korambo represents penis - Spirits believed to have faces of men - Meant to be impressive th th Sacred Object, Art Work…: Architecture & Visual Arts in Americas from 15 -19 Centuries (P14) Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan (c.1500) - Now an archaeological site - Monument that doesn’t survive intact - Spanish adventurer Hernan Cortes arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1521 - Ordered destruction of Aztec Empire o Aztec Empire was part of Mesoamerica – a cultural and geographic area that extended from central Mexico to Costa Rica (Central America) - Main façade faced west towards sun - Temple enlarged 7 times and was created by 9 different rulers - Moctezuma ll was ruler who received Cortes and who led him up 114 steep steps of temple - Huitzilopochtli was god of war and conquest - Tlaloc was god of rain, water and agricultural production - Aztecs were agricultural people - Templo Mayor was also an axis mundi for the Aztec people o Center of the Aztec universe - Adobe – clay bricks that have been dried in the sun o Materials included volcanic rubble, stone, stucco - Four tiers of the temple represent celestial levels, and top is the supreme level, most sacred space which Aztecs used to communicate with their gods - Temple was stage for human sacrifices, which they believed were necessary for natural cycles for maintaining order in society o Blood had to spilled for the cosmos to continue - In Mexico The Goddess Coatlicue (c.1500) - Sculpted from basalt, an igneous rock formed from solidified lava - Weighs 3 tonnes - Largest Aztec carving - Head replaced by two serpents - People simply treat this as an artifact of Aztec society o Human-made object; analyzed as objects that represent the ideas and technology of a time and place - Created by unknown Aztec artist(s) - Coatlicue was decapitated by her children during a battle o Gave up her life to give birth to god of war and conquest - Design of skirt emphasizes the generative powers of women - Sculptor represents her as sacrificed creator goddess - Seen to have power over people - Situated in Mexico Feather Headdress of Moctezuma (before 1519) - Described as object ruler Moctezuma presented to Cortes, who in turn sent it back to Spain - Some have speculated that it was stolen by Cortes and not a gift - Original is now in collection of Weltmuseum in Vienna - Replica – a copy, a work of art and the process of replication has been sanctioned by the owner of the original object - Authenticity – not false or copied, genuine, real - Situated in Mexico City - Quetzal bird – feathers were used for headdress - Feathers were valued tribute payments Machu Picchu – Peru (1450-1530) - Centre of Incan Empire in Andes Mountains - ‘Machu Picchu’ means the old peak - Property of the Inca rulers, Pachacuti and Tupac, who ruled between 1438 and 1493 - Served as second residence - Incan Empire included Peru, Ecuador and other South American western countries - Many of the terraces and ramps appear to be outgrowths of this escarpment o Examples of cyclopean construction – named after ancient Greek one-eyed giants o Term refers to use of enormous blocks of roughly hewn stone and large-scale building projects like Machu Picchu that was designed to impress visitors with its scale - Main tool was a heavy stone hammer - Architecture of Machu Picchu, including terraces and walls, represent an effective system of measurement based on human body parts and knowledge of math and clear design standards - Irregular and polygonal blocks, and smooth-surfaced blocks o Smooth-surfaced blocks were typically described as ashlar masonry o Blocks of stone are precisely cut and highly finished, and in smooth-surfaced blocks are laid out in a course, meaning a horizontal layer o Ashlar masonry used for constructing temples - Polygonal blocks were used primarily for construction of walls and houses of general population - In 1983, designated World Heritage Site Tunic (c.1500) - Piece of clothing that was likely worn by Incan ruler - Only one that survives with patterned effect - Covered with designs that literally cover all aspects of the piece of clothing - Best preserved of Incan textiles - Cumpi – made of cotton and camelid fibres o Camelid – wood of a mix of three animals: alpacas, lamas, and vicunas o Camelid mixture produces wool that’s both warm and soft o Used for the weft - Tocapu – geometric motifs; referred to both an individual motif and a group of motifs o Designs include diamonds, crosses and checkerboard shapes - Black and white checkerboard squares refer to a type of tunic that the Inca ruler gave to soldiers as a form of recognition for their service Feathered Basket – Pomo (c.1877) - Basket made by cultural group called Pomo situated in southern California - Used for storing and producing foods, or holding water or cooking - Well-made baskets were the most important gifts one could give or receive, and accompanied every stage of life from birth to death - Ornamental baskets, such as Feathered Basket, were integral to social and religious rituals and had incredible cultural value among Pomo people - Women were principle basket makers - Three main types of basket-making techniques: coiling, twining and plaiting - Feathered basket is example of a coiled basket and Pomonians usually made it using one color, black or red - Survival of this basket is uncommon - Craft – low art form, and objects made out of fibers, glass, wood, clay and metal, and if object had particular purpose th th Across the Globe: Sacred Spaces from 13 -18 Centuries (P15) Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque (1211-1236) - Meaning the Strength of Islam Mosque - Earliest surviving mosque of India - Complex for Islamic faithful to gather in territory - Dome is central plan building - Consists of Iwan - Physical cleansing as preparation for prayer - Serves as house of worship and symbol for Islam - Symbol of Muslim rulers just as other mosques are as well - Large interior space includes a qibla – a wall that faces the direction of Mecca, and that indicated the direction Muslims are to face for their prayers - Qutb Minar is name that was assigned to the minaret, the tower from which people are called to prayer o Walls of Qutb Minar are load-bearing walls, meaning the walls themselves carry the weight o Designed to call people to prayer - Most of building complex was made from spolia – refers to the reuse of fragments in architecture or sculpture in a new context - Sandstone was sculpted in blocks so form includes flutes – vertical grooves that are evenly spaced around the three lowest stories o Three original stories - Decoration includes calligraphy - Designated World Heritage Site since 1993 Minakshi-Sundareshvara Temple (13 -mid 17 C.) th - Hindu temple in Madurai, capital of Southern India, was ruled by Nayak Dynasty (1334-1736) o Rulers known for their organization, their support of the arts and their defense of Hinduism - Dedicated to the Hindu gods Parvati and Shiva o Parvati = Minakshi (“fish-eyed one”); Shiva = Sundareshvara (“beautiful one”) - Three basic beliefs of Hinduism: Samsara, Karma and Dharma o Samsara – Cycle or eternity of life o Karma – Law of cause and effect o Dharma – Proper conduct; set of moral duties - Earliest part of temple included small towers - High wall extends around perimeter and includes four gopura, entrance gateway or majestic tower o Gopuras constructed out of wood - Hypostyle hall – large interior space that has many columns placed close together o Columns support roof - Courtyards and hypostthe halls function with ceremonial purpose Shwedagon Stupa (15 C.) - Yangon, Myanmar - Shwedagon means ‘golden dragon’ - As a Buddhist, stupa contains relics of past Buddhas - Stupa took the form of a bell-shaped mound set on top of rounded and octagonal terraces - Stupa includes hairs of Siddartha Gautama, aka Shakyumuni - In India and Sri lanka, a mound created over sacred relics - Stupa in Myanmar is compared to an axis mundi, a world axis or cosmic axis, meaning the center that connects the human world with the celestial realm. - Tall stupa is focal point of the complex and includes smaller shrines in platform - The umbrella of the stupa is called a hti - Stupa represents the Buddha as a physical presence - Ambulatory – a space for a walking meditation while circumambulating, walking around stupa in clockwise direction, which is traditional. - During important events, large groups of people surround the main stupa - Most significant donor was Queen Shin Saw Bu, who raised height of stupa - Most celebrated Buddhist shrine in Myanmar; gilded with sheets of gold St. Peter’s Basilica and Piazza, façade (1607-1626), piazza design (c. 1656-1657) – Maderno and Bernini - Vatican City, Italy - Maderno designed façade but was replaced with another architect after he died - From 1607-1626, Maderno directed the transformation of the central plan building into a longitudinal-plan structure o A longitudinal-plan building is rectangular in shape and has an axis that runs lengthwise - St. Peter’s is also designed as a basilica plan building – basis for church building in the Western Church o Apse – rounded or semi-circular recessed space o In Christian churches, altar is typically placed in the apse - Maderno incorporated Corinthian capitals at the tops of both columns and pilasters, and emphasized the main entrance to building by placing small pediment over middle four columns o Used segmented pediments over several windows - Interior is barrel-vaulted space, which is the nave of the basilica – central space of a church or basilica - Dome designed by Michelangelo - Bernini designed Baldacchino (1624-1633) o Baldachin – a canopy that is placed over a sacred space, such as an altar or a throne. o Used in Medieval period to indicate person or place of particular importance - In St. Peter, main altar is not in apse – moved under dome, which represents heaven - Bernini designed Piazza of St. Peter’s (c.1656-1657) o Piazza is Italian for city square o Designed the piazza to embrace the faithful o Can hold about 250,000 people o Row of columns form a colonnade o People gathered here to hear Papal benedictions Temple of the Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Kaew) (1782) - Bangkok, Thailand - First patron was King Rama l – First king of Chakri dynasty (1782-present) - King is personally involved with decorating the Buddha in three different occasions during the year o Ensures the king’s rule is blessed - Thailand was never colonized by another country or culture - According to Mahayana Buddhism, each building in the complex symbolically represents the other structures and can be regarded as a substitute for other buildings o Mahayana Buddhism emphasized role of monks - Mosaic – created with small pieces of colored stone or glass that are attached to a hard surface o Small pieces of stone or glass are called tesserae - Many buildings are covered with elaborate mosaics - Bot – chapel; covered in golden mosaics - Sala – open pavilions where people can gather - Complex also includes a library - Part of grand palace and construction continues since it began th Communities & Social Practices in 20 Century African Art (P16) Twin Figures (20 C)th - Western Africa, Yoruba culture in Southwestern Nigeria - Ere Ibeij – Ibeji are twins, and Ere means spiritual images - Sculpture is spiritual image of twins - Twins are born at very high rate among Yorubans o Celebrate the birth of twins as they do with birth of children - Twins represent good fortune to a family, and are invested with notable importance because of the Yoruban belief, that for every person, there is an unborn spirit double that remains in heaven - Both twins treated as sacred - If one twin dies, a memorial must be sculpted, such as this sculpture - When Yorubans lose a twin child, they seek out a diviner – specialist in the culture’s spiritual and ritualistic practices o Diviner selects an artist that the family must commission to a spiritual image of the twin and directs the family to the chosen artist - Work created according to strict artistic practices and functions for the family in a well-defined manner - The way an individual artist carves a twin figure makes their personal style known to others o Personal style – The characteristic way he or she has of expressing him or herself o Artist’s personal style may be identifiable, but an artist does not sign the sculpture with their own name - Diviner attends event where they transfer the soul of the dead twin to the statue - Mother of twins takes care of figure as if it were a living child - Ere Ibeij represents twin in their complete, and adult form - Statue is bathed and fed regularly - Figures are carved from wood and are small because they are meant to be portable o Preferred wood is wood of rubber trees o Rubber wood has a fine grain, and Yorubans believe West African rubber trees consist of magical powers th Power Figure (Nkisi Nkonde) (19 C) - Democratic Republic of Congo, Kongo culture - Power figures filled a significant social role for Kongo people - When people sought to make an agreement or initiate a treaty, they would do so before a Nkisi Nkonde o By driving a nail through power figure, person would activate the sculpture to be attentive o Figure would carry out its role relative to their request - Torso, arms and upper body is covered with small nails - Artist and diviner who worked together first created it - Artist carved wood and diviner added materials that add to its considerable powers o It is a collaborative work of art – originally created by more than one person, and spectators aids in formation of work - Woods, nails, pins, blades, glass, raffia and earth are materials used for this sculpture. o Mixed media – the various types of materials brought together to make work o Medium – the material from which a work is made (plural: media) - Effective because of the amount of material on sculpture and people kept returning to it - Bilongo – medicinal ingredients o Composed of natural materials such as earth and ashes o Bilongo was placed in different areas of sculpture such as stomach and head - Power figures were used to ensure promises were kept and that inappropriate acts were not left unresolved Ngady Mwaash (Female Mask) (late 19 -mid 20 C)th th - Democratic Republic of Congo, Kuba culture - Represents a founding female royal ancestor of the Kuba people - Pigments of colours were applied to surface of wood to decorate mask - Formalism – form of object o Form – the visual aspects of the work including line, shape, colour, volume, texture and composition o Formal elements of work - Mask is actually worn by male figure during a funeral performance – represents power and status - Two male ancestor figures called Bwoom & Mashamboy, including female ancestor make up trilogy shown in rituals and funeral masquerades; exhibit social roles of the Kuba political system - Masquerade is performance art – contemporary art form based on a live presentation by an artist o Important and longstanding tradition in Kuba culture, which defines individuals’ roles in society - Red hat mask wears is worn by female diviners – signifies the power of nature spirits, which are source of a diviner’s powers - Color red signifies death - White lines on cheeks represent mourning and tears Five Masks in Performance (1984) - Burkino Faso - In Bwa culture, all men and women entering puberty participate in performances that take place on regular basis - Young men and women learn about their ancestors and community traditions through these masks - Zigzags and other patterns of masks represent moral codes of community o Ex: Zigzag represents challenge of emulating one’s ancestors and staying on straight path - Representational approach describes the appearance of recognizable subject matter in ways that make it seem lifelike (Ex: Beak and crescent symbol on masks) - Abstract approach, such as zigzag lines, moves away from imitating lifelike appearance to capture the essence of a form - Red, black and white are dominant colours o Black = age, wisdom and health o White = youth and inexperience o Red = spirit world - Masks enable spirits to participate - Used as vehicle to communicate with spirit realms Kente Cloth (c.1980) - Ghana, West Africa – Ashanti culture - Kente means basket - Woven with different patterns - Made exclusively for royalty and a sign of person’s social status and gender - Strips are sown together so no separations are visible - Cotton and silk fabric was traditionally used to make Kente cloth - Forms are often abstract – abstraction relates to concepts or stand in for ideas o Designs stand in for concepts - Weaving continues to be the domain exclusively of men - Pattern of cloth represents type of degree a graduating student receives - Also represents national pride Artistic Training and the Markets for Art: From Renaissance Guilds to Art…(P17) The Four Crowned Martyrs – Nanni di Banco (c.1409-1417) - Marble sculpture - Received commission from the guild of stone carvers and woodworkers who selected the subject matter of work: o Four Christian sculptors who worked in ancient Rome were put to death for refusing to make images during the Roman Empire - Related poses and drapery to ancient Roman prototypes - Two relief sculptures above and below the niche were integral to the sculpture o Relief sculpture – 3D and forms are attached to and set off against a flat background - Figure of God above the niche was meant to protrude from the background  represented in high relief - Relief below the niche represents the four branches of the guild of stone carvers and woodworkers - Nanni was a master artist – an artist who had fulfilled all the requirements of becoming a member of the guild o Had a shop and apprentices to help him with his shop o Came with many benefits, such has having apprentices, who were emerging artists that sought out training with those who had established reputations o Tuitions paid by apprentices were extremely important for an artist’s source of income Self-Portrait – Caterina van Hemessen (1548) - Most female artists in Renaissance trained with family members - Self confident pose, and looks directly at viewer - Figure painting a female figure - Right hand is leaning against a mahlstick - Individual with many paintbrushes in hand presents an artist as dexterous and capable - Work captures her promoting her abilities as a painter - Blank background brings attention to the inscription - She shows us the richness of materials and details of her clothes to promote status as a professional - Most of Hemessen’s works were commissioned for the regent of the Netherlands, Mary of Hungary o As a court painter, she was exempt from guild regulations Self-Portrait – Judith Leyster (1635) - Leyster became a master painter in 1633 when she became the first female member of the Haarlem Guild of Saint Luke - Presents herself as skilled, talented, working artist as she holds two palettes and a handful of brushes - Depicts her social status through her clothes as well as her artistic ability - Encourages the audience to focus on her figure and her easel painting by using a plain backdrop Louis XIV – Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) - The “Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture” developed in 1648 during Louis’ rule as King of France o Was a state-run national art institution that was used to impose official standards and principles of taste o Some guild members were opposed to the academy o Being a member of the academy didn’t determine success o Many academies excluded women or limited the amount of women who could join - Full-length portrait – whole body of figure - Designed to present the King as an elegant, graceful figure - His coronation robe is lined with ermine and is covered with fleur-de-lis - His sword reminds viewers that he’s the military leader of France - A relief of an allegorical representation of Justice is behind the king - Louis wanted to be presented as an authoratiative and just ruler - Red and gold drapery adds luminosity, and helps define space around King - Rigaud was called an academician – a member of an academy, especially of the Royal Academy of Arts o Academic art emphasized precise drawing, prioritized line, and carefully delineated forms o Expected to be easily understood by audience o Painters were meant to create works where spectator wouldn’t see any sign of hand in the work (e.g. texture) Charles Sackville, 2 Duke of Dorset – Rosalba Carriera (c.1730) - Carriera was elected for the French academy, which was controversial - For portrait, she used technique of pastel – An artist uses chalky crayons made of compressed pigments that are bound with water and a gum substance o One can work more quickly than with oil painting o Conveys light well - Captures the reflective surface of the Duke’s silk sleeve and contrasts the material of that surface with the black lace on his hat - Contrasts various textures of his clothes with his skin Function, Form, Play: Architecture in the 19 and 20 Centuries (P18) The Crystal Palace, London – Paxton (1850-51) - Paxton was the main architect - Under the patronage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert - Built for the first World’s Fair, which celebrated industrial civilizations o New tech and innovations from around the world o Meant to be a temporary monument - Glass, iron, and wood framework used - Some people made fun of the unusual appearance of building because it looked like a greenhouse - Almost one million sq ft of space - Used repetition of forms - Largest panes of glass were made - This perception of transparent walls became associated with an industrial aesthetic o This concept is important for modern architecture o Structural elements are all readily apparent to viewers o Forms are simple and direct o Functionalism is more important than applied decoration - Post-and-lintel design - Historical context: The Industrial Revolution - The Crystal Palace was very well-received when it was set up despite the popularity of revival architecture in the 19 o Revival architecture – The use of visual styles that consciously echo the style of a previous architectural era - The building burned down in 1936 despite the assumption that glass and iron were fireproof Fallingwater, Millrun, Pennsylvania – Wright (1937) - Commissioned by Edgar Kauffman - Wright wanted to design a house that would give Kauffman’s family privacy and offer an informal space for family life - Set above a waterfall - Building’s interaction with the landscape is central to the design - The horizontal terraces worked as a connection between the interior and exterior of nature - Used ferroconcrete – steel-reinforced concrete for the terraces, which are cantilevered o Cantilever – a horizontal projection that appears to be self- supporting because there is no external bracing - Stone was used for the vertical elements - Created aesthetic interest by contrasting the smooth finish of the concrete balconies with the surface of the local stone - Contrasted small and large panels of glass and juxtaposed those panes as vertical and horizontal shapes o Creates a unifi
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