ARTHIST 1A03 Study Guide - Buon Fresco, Cennino Cennini, Panel Painting

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7 Feb 2013
Physical properties: media
Formal structure: style; shapes
Iconography: symbolism
Cultural context: religion; symbolism
Vase painting: black figure and read figure
Painted on Greek ceramic vessels
Both applied on slip: mixed of clay and water
Slip is apply to the surface of a pot and carefully manipulating the firing
process in a kiln to control oxygen
Firing process
1. Oxygen allow in to kiln to fix oxygen in red shade
2. Oxygen in kiln cuts back in to minimum and vessel turn black; raise
temperature until is glass like
3. Allows oxygen back into kiln turning un sling area in to red
On black figure decoration on an amphora Ceramic
Using sharp tool (stylus) to cut through the slip to the body of vessal,
increasing linear detail
The reddish-purple glass is made of metallic pigment mixed with slip
On red figure
Negative spaces is painted black to form and using fine brush dipped in
liquid slip
Amphoras : only a couple of shapes they used
Roman mosaics
1. Tesserae (marbles) are pressed into a soft cement called grout
2. Once the stones were firmly set, grout (soft cement) was used to fill the
spaces between the tesserae
Fresco: Buon fresco
Buon: true
Fresco: fresh
Fresco secco: dry
Plaster is made form: lime
1. Arricio: thick under coat of plaster
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2. Sinopia:under drawing composition sketched on to arricio
3. Inonaco: thin coat of fine lime plaster over top of sinopia
4. Artist applied pigments, mixed with water, painting in to the intonaco
form the down
Giornata (a days work)
5. Determine by how much painting can be done before dry
6. A giornata can be large or small, depends on how much detailed work is
required. For example, faces takes longer time to accomplish than other
Painting on to dry plaster
Can be done slowly
Chemical reaction might occur and make the process more durable
Flakes off more easily
Need to work fast before dries
Tempera panel painting: Cennino cennini on panel painting
1. Cover panel with gesso (made from gypsum) to create a sealed ground for
2. The surface is burnished until it resembles ivory.
3. Tempera paint (created of pigments mixed with egg yolk, water and
occasionally glue)
o Favored by Italian artists
o Opaque media with matte surface
Dries really fast hard to make changes
Light does not penetrate it opaque, matte surface, requires varnish for
What kind of varnish was used on tempera panel painting?
Amber: fossilized tree resin
Sandarac resin from cypress tree
Mastic resin form a mastic tree (or shrub)
Venice turpentine
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Disadvantages: had to be applied in a precise manner because it dried almost as
quickly as it was laid down. (A lot of effort needed and it dries quick)
Oil painting
Pigment suspended in linseed or walnut oil
Dries slowly easy to make changes
Light penetrates it translucence, create inner glow by painting thin layer
called glazes
Oil painting takes longer to dry than tempera and changes can be made
before it dries.
Paint has time to smooth out so that individual brushstrokes were not visible
(surface must be as smooth as an eggshell)
Able to create luminous effects
Renaissance perspective
The technique of using light and dark areas to create a sense of three-dimension
Linear perspective orthogonal coverage at vanishing point
Can do linear perspective in two vanishing point (looking more at an angle)
Sfumato: blending of colour to make a foggy illusion
Intuitive Perspective: shows distance and background
Hieratic Scale: artist makes something larger to make it stand out
Stain glass e.g. rose window
How to make stain glass
1. To heat sand and ash until they melt until they are molten
2. Staining the glass while glass is molten add metallic oxide for color
3. Blow glass and flatten into sheet
4. Using carton as reference, cut individual shapes od color
5. Hot iron to crack glass into rough shapes
6. Grozing: ship away are the edges carefully with an iron tool to smooth out
the edges
7. Make and opaque paint from iron fillings ground glass in wine or urine
8. Fire the painted glass shapes in to a kiln to fuse the pain with the surface
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