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Quick Notes - REVIEW for Test 1 - LECTURE MATERIAL

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McMaster University
Margaret Fahnestock

Quick Notes Psych 2B03 Introduction to Personality o Personality is a hypothetical construct (a term or idea that helps explain the nature of observed objects or events) – used to understand two noticeable things 1. Consistency in behaviour from time to time and across situations 2. Pattern of consistency differs from person to person Perspectives 1. Type Approach o Biological basis – genes are impervious to change  little to say about personality development o Four Humors and Personality Types – excess of one humor resulted in illness and personality 1. Blood  Sanguine; optimism, compassion, general good humor 2. Yellow Bile  Choleric; energy, impulsivity, aggressiveness 3. Black Bile  Melancholic; intelligence, introversion, restlessness, pessimism 4. Phlegm  Phlegmatic; laid-back, easy-going o Somatotype Theory – William Sheldon – relationship between body type and illness  Body shape typing (somatotyping) 1. Ectomorphic (thin, narrow shouldered)  Cerebrotonia; restraint, desire for privacy, preoccupation with inner feelings 2. Mesomorphic (broad shouldered, athletic)  Somatotonia; assertiveness, risk-taking, sociability 3. Endomorphic (round, obese)  Viscerotomnia; relaxed, love of food, physical comfort, sociability 2. Trait Approach o Biological basis – genes are impervious to change  little to say about personality development o Personality = internal characteristics and tendencies (traits); traits dimensions can range from high to low 3. Psychodynamic Approach o Personality = action and interaction of internals structures of the mind (psyche) operating primarily outside consciousness o Behaviour = interaction between biology and experience o Personality development o Freud 4. Behaviorist Approach o Personality = consistent patterns of behaviour o Behaviour is acquired through learning and experience o Environment and experience; plays down biological factors o Watson, Skinner 5. Humanist Approach o Personality = manifestation of the Self, inner unity o Holistic o Individuals are unique, proactive and control own life 6. Cognitive Approach o Personality – consistent ways of selecting and interpreting information about ourselves and the world around us o Consistent patterns of information processing results from experience and learning 7. Evolutionary Psychology Approach o Personality = set of adaptive mechanisms that have been shaped by evolutionary pressures o Personality is what it is because it served a useful purpose in improving the individuals chances for survival and reproduction Freud and Psychoanalysis People who influenced Freud  Joseph Breuer – dealt with patients with hysteria; discovered the “talking cure” o Hysteria – (now called conversion disorder); physical problem that has no physical basis; failed treatments (massage, spa, electric shock) o The Talking Cure – if patients recalled the experience and emotions she had during development of the physical problem, the physical problem could be alleviated  Jean Martin Charcot – relationship between hysteria and hypnosis o Patients amnesia (forgot information; experience during development of physical problem) – solve by anamnesia (hypnosis) o Could elicit disorder symptoms by hypnotizing patients; could alleviate disorder symptoms by hypnotizing patients o Influenced Freud that 1) hysteria was a psychological ailment and 3) many psychological disorders might have a sexual basis  Hyppolyte Bernheim – expert in hypnosis o Post-hypnotic amnesia – do not remember what occurred during hypnotic state  Patients can be induced to remember what occurred during hypnotic state  Demonstrates that the mind is not unitary – part of the mind can hide things from consciousness o Post-hypnotic suggestion – plant a suggestion during hypnosis  Suggests that we do things that we do not understand – conscious mind may not know reason for our own behaviour Freud proved to be poor hypnotist…  Free Association – patient talks without censoring thoughts or feelings, one idea leads to another, eventually leads to hidden memories  Seduction Theory – hysteria comes from sexual experience in childhood  abandoned theory; stories were fantasies concocted by unconscious mind 1 Quick Notes Psych 2B03  Hedonism – every choice we make to 1) maximize pleasure 2) minimize pain  Two things required for behaviour o Libido – psychic energy; powers thoughts, feelings, behaviours; powers instincts (sex and aggression) equally; finite amount o Instincts – Sexuality (Eros) and Aggression (Thanatos); lead us to make decisions to gain pleasure and minimize pain; when not satisfied results in tension Personality Structures  Id – pleasure principle o Most primitive structure; present from birth o Primary Process – involves cathecting libido to internal memory images that have been associated with pleasure in the past o Predicate Thinking – difficulty distinguishing similar objects; treats similar objects the same o No direct contact with outside world; no sense of time, order, logic, causality o All libido resides in id (later some given to ego and superego) o Unconscious  Ego – Reality Principle; takes into account consequences of actions o Secondary Process – translates the ids internal wishes (images) into contact with action objects (Identification) o Learning, experiencing o Creates barriers to id – steals libido from id, creates anticathexes between id and anxiety producing images; causes id cathexes to be displaced to more suitable goal objects o Mostly conscious; some unconscious  Superego – Conscience (internalized don’ts; things been blamed/punished for) and Ego Ideal (internalized do’s; things been praised/rewarded for) o Can form anticathexes to keep id from thinking of images that are “bad” o Psychopathy is absence of superego o Partially conscious, partially unconscious Psychosexual Stages – first three have erogenous zones (primary source of sex/aggr pleasures); can lead to fixation if libido is left in stage 1. Oral Stage – birth to 1 year; mouth o Oral Incorporation (Early Oral Stage) – sexual at nature; sucking and swallowing demand feeding o Oral Aggression/Sadistic (Late Oral Stage) – aggressive at nature; biting and chewidemand feeding ends o Lesson – impulses are not always going to be satisfied when you want them to 2. Anal Stage – 1 to 3 years o Anal Expulsion (Early Anal Stage) – sexual at nature; delivering feces diapers; can go whenever o Anal Retention (Late Anal Stage) – withholding feces toilet training o Lesson – appropriate time and place for satisfying urges 3. Phallic Stage – 3 to 5/6 years o Manipulation of phallus; beginning of masturbation o Oedipus Complex develops and is resolved Male  Sexual libido cathected toward mom (attention, satisfy needs – depends on caregiver); aggressive libido toward dad (steals moms attention); wants to remove dad  Castration anxiety – fear that dad will retaliate against boys aggression by removing penis; resolution begins  Identify with dad (results in formation of superego)  Latency Stage – period of sexual and aggressive quiescence memory of complex is repressed  Sexual libido directed toward mom- and dad-like objects Female  Sexual libido cathected toward mom (attention, satisfy needs – depends on caregiver); aggressive libido toward dad (steals moms attention); wants to remove dad  Penis Envy – penis was taken away; removes sexual libido from mom (missing penis) and aggressive libido from dad  Invests sexual libido in relationship with dad; hostility toward mom (penis thief)  Fears mom, decathects aggressive libido  Identify with mom (results in formation of superego)  Latency Stage – period of sexual and aggressive quiescence memory of complex is repressed  Sexual libido directed toward mom- and dad-like objects 4. Latency Stage – 7 to 12 years o Little overt sexual behaviour; sexual interests displaced to substitute activities 5. Genital Stage – puberty to adulthood Fixation – if large amount of libido is left at certain stage  Oral Incorporative – putting things in mouth; anxiety or frustration by oral activities; gullible  Oral Aggressive – likes to chew, use teeth  Anal Expulsive – messy, disorderly, impulsive, gives things away for free  Anal Retentive – orderly, compulsive, neat, clean, collector; anal triad – orderly/cleanly obstinacy, parsimony/stinginess  Phallic Dominant  Phallic Submissive Anxiety – ego tries to balance pressures form id, superego and outside world; pressures cause anxiety 1. Moral – fear that person will so something contrary to superego
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