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[BIOCHEM 3G03] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 34 pages long Study Guide!

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Daniel Yang

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McMaster BIOCHEM 3G03 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at Chapter 1: The Chemical Basis of Life 1.1 What is Biochemistry? Biochemistry: study of chemical processes and chemical transformations in living organisms o Scientific discipline that seeks to explain life at the molecular level using tools and terminology of chemistry o Science of reductionism o Focuses on structures and functions of molecules that make up structures, eventually leading to the entire organism Bioinformatics is important in this field 1. What are living organisms made of? Structure of a molecule is intimately linked to function 2. How do organisms acquire and use energy? 3. How does an organism maintain its identity across generations? 1.2 Biological Molecules Only a small subset of known elements are found in living systems o Most abundant: C, N, O, and H; then Ca, P, K, Cl, Na, and Mg o Trace elements are also present in small quantities Biological molecules are constructed from H, N, O, P, and S Chemical reactivity of biomolecules is limited, relative to the reactivity of all chemical compounds Cells contain 4 major types of biomolecules 1. Amino Acids o Amino (NH 2 and carboxylic acid (COOH) groups o Ionized to NH3and COOH under physiological conditions o Common aa: alanine (H, methyl) o Can also contain N, O, or S 2. Carbohydrates o Simple carbohydrates (CH O) where n >= 3 2 n o Ring structure and multiple OH groups o OH groups can be replaced by other groups 3. Nucleotides o 5C sugar + nitrogen containing ring + 1 or more phosphate groups Ex. ATP o Nitrogenous groups: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine or uracil 4. Lipids o No single structural similarity, diverse collection of molecules o All poorly soluble in water bulky structure Cells also have few other small molecules that do not fit into the 4 groups, or are constructed from molecules belonging to more than one group find more resources at
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