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[BIOCHEM 4M03] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (99 pages long)


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BIOCHEM 4M03
Professor
Deborah Sloboda
Study Guide
Midterm

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McMaster
BIOCHEM 4M03
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Biochem 4M03 Lecture 3 Carbohydrate Absorption
Glucose
- Blood glucose is ideally maintained at ~5.0mM (90mg/dl conversion factor of 18)
- Aiming for blood glucose levels of around 5.0mM
- If we deviate too far, say if we go up to 7 we get adverse effects such as diabetes,
insulin resistance
- How many grams of glucose (C6H12O6) is in our blood?
o ~4.5g (pretty small, one teaspoon of sugar)
o Need to keep this level very tight
- One can of coke = 10 teaspoons of sugar
- Hypoglycemic shock from too little glucose (can pass out)
- Too much glucose is equally bad, can lead to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis
Regulation of Blood Glucose
- Glucose can be derived from 2 primary sources
o What we’re eating, the composition of that diet is an important source of glucose
levels we consume
o Our liver, fuels our glucose level so we don’t go into shock
- These glucose levels are sensed by the brain
o If low levels, tells liver to convert to glucose or after a meal glucose levels go up
so brain will also communicate with liver
- To control blood glucose after a meal, we get secretion of insulin which allows glucose to
be removed from system
- Insulin tells sugar to go into muscle and fat to remove it and get it down to normal level
as well as telling liver to stop making more glucose
- GLP-1 (Glucagon Like Peptide 1) is a forward hormone that induces the β-cells of the
pancreas to release the hormone insulin in response to rising glucose while suppressing
glucagon secretion
o Lowering of blood glucose
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Carbohydrates
- Major source of energy in the average human diet
- Half of diet is typically consumed as polysaccharides (starches, dextrins) derived from
cereal grains and vegetables
- Remaining consumed as simple sugars (sucrose, lactose, fructose)
Types of carbohydrates
- Figure 3.1 in textbook
- Fructose is used in many processed foods
- Storage form of glucose in our bodies is glycogen
Absorption of glucose/galactose
(SGLT1)
NA+ATPase powered symport
Pumps both glucose and sodium
Into the cell through the cell
membrane
Sodium is moved from
the epithelium cell into
Bloodstream by Na+/K+
ATPase and K+ moved from
blood into cell
(GLUT2)
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