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Bio 1A03 Feb 11 (2).docx

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McMaster University
Lovaye Kajiura

Bio 1AA3 Gene therapy -> get cells to have a new property… so patient can genetically modify and fight the cancer cells in the body (immotherapy) N ONDISJUNCTIONS ->may occur during Meiosis I -homologous pairs don’t separate properly -> May occur during Meiosis II -sister chromatids don’t separate properly (figure 12.15 -> should show cross between chromosomes) ** be able to diagnose different cancer/ diseases from chromosomes (Karyotypes) OTHER MISTAKES INVOLVED CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE ALTERNATION: -deletions, duplications, also crossing over errors may occur (result to some genetic difference in daughter cells) ANEUPLOIDY (can affect the longevity of the individual)  abnormal number of certain chromosomes  individuals have too many or too few of specific chromosomes ie: down syndrome (have three/ trisomic for chromosome #21/autosomal syndrome)  symptoms of down syndrome: 1) mentally challenge 2) slured speech 3) Patau syndrome: (47, 13+ trisomy chr.13) 47-> one more than normal -Characteristic: trisomy of chromosome 13 -Severely mentally challenged -Cleft palate, deaf -Malformed organs Edwards Syndrome (47, 18+ trisomy 18) -trimsony of chromosome 18 -small newborns -low set ears, webbed neck, receding chin, organ malformation Turner’s Syndrome (X0 monosomy, individual females only one X chromosome) -viable human monosomy -short stature, webbed neck, shields like chest (flat chested) -Internal sex organs do not mature, females are sterile can’t get a male survived from just one Y (needs some informatio
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