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Midterm II Psychology Combined Notes! .pdf

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Lovaye Kajiura

24 September, 2013 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT I :Piaget (P1) Introduction & Key Ideas Introduction - Piaget is the father of research and development (cognitive) - 8196-1980 - early publications (age 9!) - background in biology and philosophy ▯ Jean Piaget (8196-1980) - Theoretical perspective - maturationist : our biology in essence will dictate when certain skills will develop - constructive: he thought experience was important, you have a certain ability to understand the world around you based on your biology (but there are certain things your not able to understand so you build on what’s going on around you) - Philosopher - what is knowledge? (is not ready-made) - where does knowledge come from? - what is intelligence? - the above questions were all of Piaget’s areas of interest - Piaget on Piaget - believes that child development unfold on their own, but somethings happen cognitively before other things can - children in a world where everything is new to them, they are continuously trying to understand, so they are constructing their reality... but this is limited to what they are ABLE to understand - ▯ Key Ideas - Piaget believes that intelligence is an adaptive, basic life function - All intellectual activity is directed at adapting (the whole goal of intellectual activity is to put a balance between what we know and what we experience - then we will adapt to the world around us) - Kids are active, motivated learners (because everything is new, we are motivated to learn (actively engaged in the environment)) - Goal is Cognitive Equillibrium ( In this state: what we know, we can easily explain what we are experiencing) - Discomfort is caused by Cognitive Disequilibrium ( when there is no balance between what we know and our experience we become confused about our surroundings) [what i know and what I experience can’t be explained :(] - Equilibration relieves discomfort ( for children its to ask to learn to know) -Kids construct their own knowledge - kids really want to be in the state cognitive equilibrium, when they are in cognitive disequilibrium the child wants to dash right back in to comfort/equilibration. (ie. In the video the child could not understand the lengths of the string - but still tried to put it together and seemed silly or crazy answers) - BUT within the confines of what they already know - Schemes (Mental Structures) - Piaget says schemes is organized pattern of thought or action constructed to interpret ones experience - an idea, cognitive structure - schemes help kids construct reality (ie. remember the kid trying to draw “an accurate representation of a triangle) - Cognitive development is development of increasingly complex schemes. - How to we go from blob like shape to triangles and squares? Building and refining schemes! - How do kids construct and modify their schemes? - Organization - Adaptation ▯ Schemes: Organization & Adaptation - Organization the process by which we combine existing schemes to form more complex schemes - ie. baby borns - gazing (build visual), reaching and grasping (builds taxtile experience) reflexes - these are useful for a while - eventually baby combines these together, so now babies will reach towards something interesting and grab it. AKA VISUAL DIRECTING REACHING - kids are constantly organizing and reorganizing the world around them and that leads to Adaptation -Adaptation - Assimilation occurs when you something that is new and you try to interpret it within the confines of an existing theory of the world (taking something new and just fitting it in with your theories with something like it) - Dog scheme (the only four legged creature you’ve ever seen, so every time you see something with 4 lugs and fur and you call DOGGY!) - see a horse, your still going to call it doggy. You are trying to assimilate something new with an existing theory you have. - Accommodation: - Asking what is it?! , after seeing a horse (who you think is a dog) and then Mum and Dad tell him/her that it’s a HORSY - Now the child will take this new information into processing. - ex. of pink: - Prof sees all shades of pink as PINK (this is assimilation) - But when the prof sees a new shade of Pink, say neon pink she ask’s what is it so this new classification is accommodation. - Examples - effects of new data on scientific theories - as soon as you change your “Theory” because the data don’t fit = this is ACCOMMODATION - cars, trucks, SUV’s video ▯ Adaptation to a New Object 1: When Assimilation Does Work … Equilibrium -> your cat tabby (you think all cats are like that)-> you see a siamese cat (which meows alot) -> you go in to cognitive disequilibrium -> but then you agree that its a cat -> equiblrium & assimilation ▯ Adaptation to a New Object 2: When Assimilation Doesn’t Work... The only thing you've ever seen fly you call a BIRD -> equilibrium -> you see an airplane -> disequilibrium -> but than you decide its a BIRDY -> assimilation -> but than you think gee thats a funny looking bird (metal wings), I’m must not be understanding something -> at this point you feel disequilibrium -> so now you ask an adult, and they tell you it’s airplane -> accommodation (this gives the child enough information to reorganize their flying objects scheme) - > Reorganizing bats, planes, birds, you will achieve equilibration eventually. ▯ Monday, 30 September, 2013 LECTURE 10: PIAGET’S Stage of Cognitive Development (P2) Sensorimotor Stage What do children know, and when? ▯ Piaget thought that cognitive development happen’s in a stage like manner ▯ Set-Up: Stage Theory Basics - The way you adapt/think about the world is different from if you are a sensorimotor person to preoperational stage - The Four Stages: - Sensorimotor (birth to 2yrs) (think with body) - Preoperational (2-7 yrs) - Concrete operations (7-11yrs) - Formal operations (11+yrs) - Characteristics? - Qualitative difference between stages - invariant order - Piaget believed that these stages are universal - Ages are approximate - The whole approach to problem solving and thought develops through these stages which occur in order - One of the things that does change is the age at which these stages happen - “ages are approximate” - certain experiences are required for unfolding of cognitive skills - Piaget is right when he says the ages he supplements are approximate because certain cultures/situations will make you get these experiences earlier or later which accelerates or decelerates development into the stages. ▯ Sensorimotor Stage (0-2yrs) How did Piaget study infant intelligence? - He did a longitudinal study of his OWN kids - Longitudinal - Naturalistic observation - Experimental manipulation - His experiments were very clever - but.. maybe his way of testing were not best for testing the particular skills - Sample size: was very small , his own three kids only. - Genetic similarity: they are all related so you can’t make broad generalizations - Bias: research bias, him and his wife were doing all the research and observations Piaget used his own kids to figure out what’s going on in the cognitive minds of young people ▯ Sensorimotor Stage (0-2yrs) Development of Problem Solving Skills - basic accomplishment is that at the end of the stage, 2 year old can solve mental problems in their head (they can think the way we think to solve problems) - Infants from being reflexive to reflective - Six Substages describe how infants go from being “reflexive” to reflective thinkers - SUBSTAGE 1:Reflex Activity (birth to 1 month) - “Mindless” exercising of reflexes - Where/when does adult thinking start? What are babies born knowing? - Piaget says babies are born using reflexes they are born with. These reflexes are what babies use to adapt to the world. These reflexes aren’t perfect but for the first month, babies practice, exercise these reflexes (sucking) ▯ - SUBSTAGE 2: Primary Circular Reactions(1-4 mos.) - Use of reflex-based schemes to replicate interesting body -related events • ie. babies move hands, fingers hit side of mouth leading to sucking fingers discovered accidentally that it is a fun thing to do - they can’t stop because it gives them pleasure • they are reacting to a situation that lead to a nice result for them • repeatedly sucking on their fingers transitions babies from passive to active actors (almost doing this actively rather than as a reflex) • infants haven’t noticed anything other than their body, notice objects in the next stage -SUBSTAGE 3: Secondary Circular Reactions(4-8 months) - Ditto, but interesting object-related events - quaking duck; babies enjoy it. , eventually grasping kicks in and they get the duck to quack (accidentally) now that it happened once, they want to continuously have the event repeated None of the above stages required creating and planning, the reactions are happening by accident. All of this discovered by change, developing on to schemas. - SUBSTAGE 4: Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8-12 months) - we are making things happen - we are going to combine our existing schemes (Sucking, graphing) to get to some common goal (pleasurable event) - Intentional/planful behaviour - ie. A soother has been put under a blanket, as a baby you want it. You have to reach, grasp, lift, suck to get the pleasure of the soother ( you’ve completed a means-end task!) To Piaget this looked like strings put together to form a plan. - combine multiple existing schemes to achieve goals - use schemes to understand objects - ie. What can I do with mummy cell phone on the floor here? Can I suck it? Can I hit it? Can I shake it? What reflex have I learned can I do with it? Babies are using existing schemes (like sucking) to understand the interesting new object (can i suck the phone?) - Lucienne’s new doll near basinet , touches it, now grasps it, pulls the doll, strikes it with hand, sucks it, shakes it. [she has used her schemes [stringing them all together] to try to understand the new object, the doll] - as a baby in this step you are more interested in the object as opposed to just interacting with the object accidentally. - SUBSTAGE 5: Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) - Creating interesting events in new ways - Learn how objects interact with one another and the word - Trial and error schemes (I’m just going to try everything I know (everything in my schemes)) - Baby becomes a little scientist, very intent on exploring new things and actively experimenting with new objects - quaking duck: what else can do with this duck to make it do interesting things? what happens if I suck on it, sit on it, throw it? If I throw it, duck squeaks, this is interesting so I will keep doing it. - SUBSTAGE 6: Symbolic Problem Solving (18-24months) - The schemes go mental! You start thinking in your head - Schemes “go mental” -> No more trial and error - Laurent seated on the table, bread placed, stick also placed on the other side alittle closer. Laurent tries to reach the bread, fails. Looks to the stick, grabs it, and uses the tool to bring the bread to him self ( Piaget thinks the child is able to mentally visualize the stick as a tool, an extension of his hand that will get him the bread) - Jacqueline grass in hand & door problem : she imagined the problem that the door will sweep away the grass if placed on the floor, she imagined the solution that she needs to place the grass outside of the door’s movement parameter. [she did this all in her head, with out trail and error!] - Adult-like thought is emerging now! ▯ ▯ ▯ SUMMARY : Sensorimotor Substages - Review: we talked about the six substages of sensory motor developments (from birth to age 2) - this is the creating of thinking machine. - Babies at the end of the substages think adult like but before that babies basically practice the reflexes in their body (sucking, gazing, etc -) - Sub1: Practicing reflexes ( thinking with reflexes) - Sub 2 & 3: Body - and object-centered reflex use (baby is now using these reflexes to reproduces actions of pleasures that once occurred accidentally) - Sub 4: Intentional/Planned behaviour - eg. means-end tasks; object exploration - happens around 8-12 months, you start coordinating your secondary schemes, stringing together simple schemes to achieve a goal ( object under blanket ex.). Babies are trying to assimilate new information (new objects) with already existing schemes ( can i suck this?) - Sub Stage 5:Novelty seeking - ie. trial & error exploration - babies become little scientist, interesting in creating new ways of getting a new result , they do this through trial an error ( what other things can i do to get this duck to quack or something interesting) - Sub6: You’re using ‘Mental Representation’, you do some problem solving. - difference between sub 4 and 6, in 4 your stringing things you know and do and put them together but its not completely thought out where as in sub 6 its a completely new response to her problem (jacqueline and her grass and door problem - no trail and error) - substage 5 the main thing going on is novelty, really trying to create interesting new things in new ways ▯ Monday, 7 October, 2013 Sensorimotor Stage: Accomplishments - The beginning of mental representation that your now thinking in your head, instead of your body. - Capstone accomplishment - beginnings of symbolic thought - What sort of skills came along that allow this accomplishment? (skills that reflect this accomplishment) - imitation: grandpa puts his finger in his mouth, baby imitates this gesture. Piaget felt that imitation doesn't develop until sub 4(8-12months) (even then your not actually good at it.) But becomes very good at sub stage 5 (1 year old). - Jacqueline imitated Piaget in touching her head, felt her hair - Deferred Imitation: you see a model touch their forehead, then they leave, maybe a couple of hours later or a day you also touch your forehead - Jacquline: saw someone have a temper tantram (baby boy). Didn’t just have her own tantram the next day but did the same exact things the baby boy did the day before. This displays how she was able to use her mental images to repeat the actions. ▯ Colling &Hanes argue that babies can engage in symbolic thinking ( remembering to press a button seeing a model do it in which the button makes the toy do something rat) ▯ - Object Permanence: is a controversial topic, You know that objects have permanent existence outside of your perceptual contact with them. - so objects permanent even if your not in contact with them ( so if you can’t see them or touch them , they still exist) - this very simple thing develops across the six substages - it happens quite gradually over time - when we are very little if the object removed the baby lose interest ( saw the elephant - very interested, blocked view - lose interest “ whatever”) - but as we get older we get disappointed if the object goes out of view (baby can’t find duck, starts looking for it) ▯ Development of Object Permanence - in the first couple of substages there is no evidence of object permanence. - Sub 1-2: No evidence of search - in the first little bit of life, Piaget says where not interested in objects until 4 months. -Sub 3: - ages (4-8 months) - babies will actually search for a hidden object but only if its partially hidden (so you can see some of it). but if its fully hidden, they don't search they get upset. - Piaget: “if the object is completely hidden, babies get frustrated and think that object is not there” - The amount of object visible predicts the likelihood of searching for the object - the likelihood of search is much more likely if it’s hidden by the baby - if baby drops a cup from the highchair, they’ll look for it - if mum knocks the cup the baby wonders where it went but doesn’t really search for it (wasn’t a cup here?) - Sub 4: The search is very goodo mental representation - search for an object hidden by some else is still very good! - there’s still a problem - Piaget doesn’t think they get it full yet - class of errors called A-NOT-B errors : You hide the object in location A a few times in front of baby then at one time you hide it in location B again in front of the baby - then when you ask the baby to find it they go to location A (repeatedly1) (finding mr.lion video) - the baby had acted on location A and not B thats why he can’t get out of finding it location A -Sub 5: Baby no longer makes A-not-B errors, but invisible displacement - but Piaget was still not satisfied with it. -see it. have trouble with invisible displacement : you hide the objects but the baby doest - battery demonstration (battery in hand -> put the hand somewhere -> show hand -> baby very surprised) - Piaget sits at a table with several toys, take one toy and takes it behind toy a, b and c and at the end they are surprised when they toy is not Piaget’s hand. Babys are so surprised and overwhelmed they don’t look for it, they think it must be in one of the three places but don’t look for it until sub 6 - they have enough of object permanence that it must be somewhere but they are so flabergassted that they don’t look for it!! (can’t deal with invisible displacement) Sub 6: Success! - babies now understand and think, the object was in his hand before the three toys, but at the end it wasn’t there so they it must be somewhere between the toy a and b , so now they are inclined to look for it ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 8 October, 2013 PIAGET (P2) : Sensorimotor Stage Cont. ▯ Critiques Against Piaget - The critiques were mainly accusations and underestimations - Imitation - imitation is good far sooner than Piaget thought (he thought they didn’t do it till substage 4, and mastered it in sub stage 5) - Meltzoff and Moore(1999) had a model sit across from the baby and do one of three expression (tongue protrusion, mouth openings) and the baby was tapped (12 - 21 days) - The tape was given to people who didn’t know anything about the experiment to make observations about what the baby was doing. - M& M’s data suggested that babies can imitate (even neonatal babies) About 40% of the time when a model does something the baby does it too! If the model is doing tongue protrusion, baby is more likely to do tongue protrusion than mouth opening. If the model is doing a mouth opening the baby does MO than TP - We had a great deal of difficulty in replication these for babies before 9 months of age ▯ - Replication - Babies before age 9 months can imitate tongue protrusions (most easily replicated results) but the rest of the expressions are not really there yet ; its really hard to get imitation of anything else. - this could be because they use their tongue a lot with feeding & sucking - Another critique has Deferred Imitation - Collie and Hayne (1999) found that babies that are quite young are able to engage in deferred imitation being that its simple stuff (they can do things from a day or two ago) [Piaget may have been looking for too much - perhaps his tasks were too difficult and expecting a lot out of babies] - Memory - Piaget believes that you can’t form a memory until you use mental representation (so you can’t make memories before substage 6!). Piaget believes that until you can work things in your head and think adult like your probably not making memories. There is no ability to make any sort of lasting memory. However, yes in indeed even small babies show memory formation - Habituation /dishabituation research : for habituate you have to remember you’ve seen the image over and over again and for dishabituation you have to remember what you previous image/object was to recognize the new one. - Rovee-Collier mobile experiment: wanted to test whether three months olds could make memories. She did a interesting experiement involving a mobile.Subject came in to her lab twice and where put in a crib under the mobile. Half of them have an interesting experience, baby with string attached to leg to mobile showed three times the more kick rate. These babies all came back later, no strings at all, and Collie looked for difference in whether the training experience matter . (this was a week after) So in time 2, when the babies came back after a week, the babies who had training experience still kicked at a faster rate even with no string this time. - So what she found was that babies created a memory of the event up to a week, suggesting they formed a memory. - Object Permanence - We think Piaget missed a few things causing him to underestimate babies abilities - One has to do with the A not B - some researchers have noted that when the baby reaches for the wrong side they really look at site B like they know it’s their but can’t stop from reaching at site A. [this is a result of frontal lobe development - the babies are not hampered by development but are by neurodevelopment. So the problem is not of understanding] - Motor search -> Intentionality ; maybe his task is to hard in terms of motor ability? (vid of baby in subset 3, makes a crying noise when soother hidden). We don’t know why babies fail these tasks before substage 4? Do they fail it because they don’t know the object is there, or is it - Baillargeon’s impossible events : came up with really clever methodology using habituation/ dishabituation -bridge thing that drops a 180 degrees, in the experimental group one of two things may happen to the babies - the fan stops when it hits box (real event) ▯ - the fan passes through the box as if it wasn’t there ( magical event, impossible event) - maybe the 180 deg is just more interesting that the 112 deg. so she created a control - if they looked longer at the impossible events it could be object permanence as the baby would understand this is impossible - data - graph: the possible event is not interesting, but the important thing is that the can’t pass a sol box through a sold fant if objects exist if they continue to exist (you - Another experiment she did looking at object permanence in three and a half experiment -watch it several times) - this is the habituation eventeen ( on a conveyor belt, either big or small and - how do i test if the same carrot going all the way through? (this understanding suggests object permanence -this) but if the tall carrot doesn’t go through (so if you have object permanence), he used by - results: ▯ the babies have a sense that it should be in the window if the carrot is a tall carrot. Overall Evaluation of Stage 1 - Piaget’s finding are replicated over and over again, quite accurate in what it measures, but Piaget does - when the task is simply we find that there is evidence for the sensory skills coming in earlier than Piaget thought they would ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Thursday, October 10, 2013 Piaget (P3): Preoperational Stage Pre-Operational vs. Concrete Operations Intelligence ▯ Overall Evaluation of Stage 1 - more or less accurate picture of infants - only real critique is underestimation - methodological limitations Overview - pre-operation stage (2-7 ages) - kids make crazy errors - concrete operations stage (7-11 ages) - kids stop making those mistakes - everything that the pre-operational can’t do, the operations can! ▯ What is Operation? - is basically an overall logic system; a sense of what are the rules of objects in the world, what types of can I come up with? - gravity, so if throw something it’ll come down - kids in pre-operation stage don’t have operation but the concrete ones do - contrast 2 stages for the best picture of developing abilities - Which tasks can concerts ops kids do that pre-op kids can’t? - Why do pre-op kids fail where concrete ops kids succeed? ▯ Strenght of Preoperational Thought: ‘Symbolic Function’ - substage 1 (2-4 yrs) - involves first use of mental schemes, time of very quick learning - engaged in all sorts of internal problem solving - kid with blade of grass - language use; learning to use language impt. marker of developing intelligence (Piaget) - being able to use symbols or words is doing it mentally in your head - symbolic/pretend play - playing teacher, or house, etc. - comes from the child’s imagination - reflects new mode of thinking and symbolic representation, you can’t do this before you have mental schemes - child given a specific toy, it dictates what the child can play with it, but if you give them a more broader play (block, clay, etc.) then it doesn’t limit them and can play differently with them each time - pretend play is voluntary, and if you impose it, won’t work properly - want to support play, not direct it - in kindergarten, the different areas (literacy, sand table, science centre, group table, etc.) are there so child can explore the different areas and imagination - children that do well academically, suggests that their childhood was enriched with imagination and they explored different areas very well!!! - can use mental schemes very well - Why is symbolic thought so important? - speed (it is faster than trial & error), scope, social interaction - more thinking taking place - larger in scope than sensory motor thinking - sensory motor is used only for present and what you can actually see and touch in front of you; this does not limit you - interaction is talking things out and learning more ; ability to use language (b/c this is how someone teaches you something and how you tell them what you are thinking) - thinking has become more enriched, can think about a lot more topics and can now communicate what you are thinking about ▯ Weaknesses of Pre-operational Thought: “Intuitive Thinking” - substage 2 (4-7 yrs), thinking is: - rigid - insensitive to inconsistencies - focused on superficial aspects of problems - can’t handle more than one thing, and get confused so can’t make proper conclusions - egocentric - incapable of representing other people’s minds - think that what they know, everyone knows as well - can’t take perspectives - kind of like hiding under a blanket and you think they can’t see you just because you can’t see them - in essence, pre-operational thinking is illogical - concrete operations corrects all of these short-comings (but still has its own short comings) ▯ Pre-operational Thought: Specific Deficiencies - Animism - we are giving inanimate objects life, human life qualities - “the sun is hiding being the mountains” - Egocentrism - inability to see the world from anyone’s perspective accept than your own - fail to recognize that other people have different experiences - three mountain task ▪ You show a kid a model that has three mountains on it (3D) and you have them walk around the model then have them sit at one part and ask them to pick out a of a series of 4 different views, what are you looking at now ▪ Then you take a teddy bear and put them at a different spot on the mountain and ask the kid to identify what teddy is seeing - they will pick what they see ▪ The child doesn’t understand that teddy has a different experience – they are only able to represent their own experience - egocentric speech ▪ Kid telling a story, because you think that everyone else knows what you know, you leave out all the important details ▪ Tendency for preoperational kids to assume that listeners know everything they now, so they leave out important details ▪ Example: Star Wars according to 3 year old - Centration - only focus on one aspect at a time and neglect others - kids make crazy crazy errors here - get captured by one salient aspect and fail to notice anything elseConservation tasks: • Conservation of Number (first achieved: ~ age 5) o In conservation tasks you show a child two equal things – i.e. two rows of 5 chips – then you spread out one of the two rows – the child will say that the two rows are now different and then the child will say they are different because one is longer – they are focused on the salient feature of length – they don’t realize if all the chips were put in the same place they would be the same – they don’t have the concept of reversibility (this is an operation) – they believe the change in length is a change in number too – they don’t have the operation to understand number conservation • Conversation of volume (achieved 1-2 years after Number): measure out two cups in front of the child (same size) and ask them if the two cups have the same amount, they will say yes – then pour one cup into a taller (thinner) cup and ask which once is more they will say the taller cup – they fail to recognize that the second class is thinner – they think it has more because it is taller (this is their intuitive thinking) • Conservation of mass: achieved around same time as volume o You roll out two balls of play dough and get the kid to agree they both have the same amount – then you take one of the balls and roll it into a sausage and ask which one has more clay or are they the same – the kid will say the sausage has • more clay – they will say the sausage one has more because it is longer Conservation of length: 2-3 years after number o Show kids two sticks and you ask them if they are the same or are they different – then you just offset one and then ask if they are the same or are they different – they will usually say the lower one is longer – it seems to be based on where they are looking when the straw is moved – this determines which one they think is longer – they are focused on one thing (centering) • Conservation of weight: achieve same time as length o Explain to children how weigh scale works and get two balls of clay and put them in the scale and ask if they weigh the same or if one weighs more than the other – then you put the balls on the table and roll one out into a sausage and ask if they are the same or if one weighs more than the other – they will says the sausage one weighs more than the ball – if you ask why they will say it is bigger – they are focusing on one thing ▯ Tuesday, 15 October, 2013 Piaget (P3) Cont.: Preoperational Stage Pre-Operational vs. Concrete Operations Intelligence ▯ Recap of last lecture: - we were talking about problems kids have in the preoperational stage - ie. intuitive thinking (rather than systematically thinking they come up with answer without thinking “oh yeah I know this” and it’s hard to argue with them other wise) ▯ Conservation Conservation of Number (first achieved: approx. age 5) - 10 circles in two rows of 5 - Do the two rows of chips have the same number of chips? - Spread out the chips and reask the question. - they will say the second row because “it appears longer” Conservation Volume -two glasses same shape have the same amount of drink, pour in to the a different shaped glass they will say it has decreased/ increased , when in reality the volume didn’t change Conservation of Mass - two balls of playdoy have the same amount playdough, roll one in to a sausage now, ask kids if the two balls have the same amount of playdough (they will say the sausauge/flat one is bigger) - Example: playdoh kid - kid says the sausage is “longer” - you cannot teach kids they are wrong, if they are not ready they are not ready Conservation of Length - show kids two sticks (straws), you ask if they are the same or different? they will say they are the same - offset one, and reask the question. The kids will always the second one is longer and the top one shorter. They focus on the right end ( in other cases, kids distinguish based on where they look, focus on one thing rather than the whole thing) - example: straw video ▯ Conservation of mass - you explain to children how a weight scale works, you put two balls of clay and put them on the scale, as if they both weigh the same? they say yes. , now make one clay ball a sausage and ask which weighs more, kid will say the sausage will way more... why ..‘because its bigger, so it must weight more’ ▯ Why do children make these errors? - Centration: you focus on the most obvious/eye catching/salient of a given problem or situation - research suggests that at this age when your drawn to one single focus you can’t think about it so otherwise - once attention is drawn to one feature at this age you cannot redirect it - this is why children cannot understand the correct answer - 10 balls, length changed (you notice this first), but something else has also changed - the density. but what you don’t also notice is that the number has not changed. - Decentration: - focus on more than one feature of the problem /situation, occurs at the end of preopstage video - women and kid (‘conservation of volume’) ; the child noticed that there’ more than one thing to look at (not just the level of water but also the vessel its in (narrow /wide) - Reversibility: - understand that superficial changes can be reversed - if she took the liquid in the wide glass and put in the narrow class and vice versa it is the same. It’s the same substance being dealt with! - You can’t focus on all these changes at once, this gets fixed once you are able to conserve, you’ve decentered (slow process) and you understand reversibility. The kid with the balls of clay, from ball and sausauge form, if rolled back in to ball the kid would not understand it as the same substance - an operation is basically just a logical rule, super scheme, tells you how to approach various types of problems, once you have decentration, reversibility you can approach and understand all sorts of complex problems. - Ov•rall logic system As you get more experience with the world and develop strategies for understanding the world around you - you develop an overarching system that allows you to quickly and easily solve problems like the conservation tasks • Operations as a advanced problem solving scheme ▯ Categorization Categorization inability - young kids in preoperational stage lack anything you need to know about categorizations - example video: kid can’t categorize images “lion, elephant, zebra, wagon” - all are different - The little boy in the video is unaware of the structure and logic of classes - he doesn’t understand the concept of classification (even though mum sort of talked it through with him.. what do you do with it?) Structure and Logic of Classes - we know that any given thing can belong to multiple classes at once , a poodle - is a pet, also a dog, also a mammal - subclass is smaller than superordinate , we know there cannot be more roses than flowers, we know there can’t more red roses than roses, we know that there can’t be more dogs than pets. we have operations to help us deal with that but younger kids don't - another thing we know, that kids in the preoperational class don’t know, a red rose is more useful to say than saying “flower” - kids say its the same thing. We know its more useful to call a pet a poodle, where as younger kids think all furry animals are pets. Class Inclusion Task - Are there more wooded beds than red beads? - Pre-Op kids vs. Concrete Op - Piaget tested kids problems with categorization with something called a “class inclusion task” - you present kids with 12 wooden beads, 10 of the beads are red, 2 are white - you ask the kids if there are more wooden beads or more red beads? - you know that red is a subclass and wooden beads is a subordinate class, but young kids don’t quite get this - here is script between six year old boy and research: the kids really centuring on the perceptual obvious redness of the red beads, the kids is unable to take into account the woodenness of all the beads. once the kids has centered on the red beads, he will fail to recognize that all the beads are made of wooden, so now when you ask them which beads are more they focus on the redness - for kids there are classes and subclasses, just focus on the salient and the not- salient - example video : preoperational child - count dogs: 8, cats: 4 - how many animals are there? 8 - to the boy the dogs were more perceptually obvious to him. He’s just centered in dogs - a concrete operation kid will have the necessary tools to think about the complex problem logically (10 year old and researcher) - more wooden beads or red? wooden. - why? because there are also two white wooden beads than the red beads - which necklace will be longer wooden bead or red bead ? if both red and white wooden beads used it’ll be longer - the pre-operational kid will always suggest the “Red beads” because that’s whats more perceptually obvious to him. ▯ The concrete operation kis understand that its logically impossible for the sub class red to be larger than the subordinate class wooden beads - the preoperational kids minds gets drawn away by the redness of the red beads and just get stuck ▪ Tran•ition between preoperational and concrete operational continuous or discontinuous: Piaget would say it is discontinuous • On the other hand within the preoperational stage what you are seeing a continuous development within the stage and then a big leap into the concrete operational stage ▯ ▯ Some of Piaget critiques - you are being to harsh (underestimating kid’s abilities) - people believe Piaget is wrong about egocentrism : - theory of mind research is the abousite of ego centrism, if you have theory of mind than you recognize that others have perspectives - 2-3 year old will turn the picture so that you can see - this suggests theory of mind - children adjust how they will talk and play with older and younger kids (will be more gentle, talk simply to younger kids) so they do actually adjust to those around them - 4-5 (middle of preoperational stage) pass the sally an test to see if childrens ahve the theory of mind - if you didnt have theory of mind you’d think sally would look in the box, you know it’s in the box but you need to know that sally thinks differently, this suggest theory of mind Underestimation: • Egocentrism (aka lack of Theory of Mind) o Research on theory of mind – opposite of egocentrism – if you have theory of mind you recognize that other people have different perspectives ▪ They have found that 2-3 years olds adjust to others’ perspectives in some situations (they have some theory of mind) • Example: they will turn a picture around so you can see it • Research suggest that children change how they talk and play with children who are older or younger than them – they are adjusting to those around them ▪ 4-5 year olds pass the Sally-Ann task: it is designed to test whether or not children have theory of mind • IF you didn’t have theory of mind you would think Sally would look in the box • Kids as young as this do fine on this task – they know sally thinks the ball is where she last saw it (suggests they have theory of mind) •Conservation Tasks oCultural variation oRole of Experience Monday, October 21, 2013 ▯ Piaget (P4) -Concrete Operations Stage (7-11 years) Accomplishments & Shortcomings ▯ The first stage of cognitive development in which children have mental operations available to them Accomplishments •Sophisticated Schemes: oThey now have mental operations that allow them to solve problems in much more efficient and sophisticated ways than they could before •Decentering: o Categorization and class inclusion o Conservation tasks o *They have decentered now, which allows them to be successful in these tasks • Reversibility: if you do something to some substance and then undo it, it will go back to the way it was before, so the task didn’t actually change the substance o Conservation tasks • Egocentrism is no longer an issue Shortcomings • You can only apply all of this logic you are now capable of through operations to real world objects (observable objects) and events o Logic can only be applied to concrete, real-world objects and events – cannot do abstract o Abstract thinking involves working things through in your head without a prop • Therefore… o 1. Cant solve abstract problems (can’t do it in their head, but if you were to show them images of the problem they would be able to solve it) o 2. Cant handle contrary-to-fact premises ▪ It doesn’t exist in the real world in the way it is being presented ▪ “If all first graders all kids, and all kids are people, then all first graders are people” – this is saying stuff that is true, sot hey have no problem with this ▪ “If all first graders are kids, and if all kids are hippos, then all first graders are hippos” – they will get upset over this and say it is not true and even if you were to explain the solution, they cannot accept the premise – if you get a premise and are told to think as if it is true and solve the problem based on this – they cannot do it ▪ glass breaking, hammer vs feather clip! o 3. Poor systematic problem solving – you have several variables in some problem and the answer requires to you manipulate the variables to come up with an answer (you cant manipulate more than one at one time) ▪ These children do not understand this – if you give them more than 1 variable they start manipulating them all at the same time and it becomes a mess ▪ If the problem is too complex, too much abstraction, then concrete operation kids cannot do it ▯ ▯ Formal Operations Stage (age 11 years+) Accomplishments and Critiques Achievements • Hypothetico-deductive (abstract) reasoning o Thinking through any type of problem that has at its core something that you have to imagine (something abstract) o Example: algebra (dealing with letters, etc.) o Example: “who is tallest” problem o Example: contrary-fact-problems o Example: third eye premise ▪ Task: suppose you were given a third eye and that you could choose to place it anywhere on your body – draw me a picture to show me where you would place it and tell me why you would place it there • Concrete operations kids (around 8-9): usually choose to put the head on their forehead, near the other two eyes – based on their own experience of eyes o “This is stupid, no one has a third eye” – very concrete • Formal Operations (age 12): loved the problem, thought it was very cool – they came up with weird placed to put them – they let go of reality, thought abstractly o Ex. On top of tall hair, palm of hand, or eye in mouth – they are giving the eye a specific task now, like seeing behind them, etc. • Systematic problem solving o Involves experimenting (like scientist), knowing that if you have several variables to manipulate you have to hold something constant o Piaget’s (1958) pendulum task: ▪ Bring kid into lab and teach them how pendulum works, give them various different weights of “BOB” that they can attach to various lengths of string, you show them they can push it hard or soft, drop it from high or low, etc. – then you ask them to figure out whether the length of the string, weight of the BOB, the force of the push (hard or soft) and the height of the push (dropping from high or above) is response for the period of the pendulum (length of time of 1 swing) ▪ Results: • With younger kids, nothing was held constant, varied it all at once – disaster • Formal operations kids were quite systematic with it – they would take the heavy BOB, put it on short string and push it hard, soft, etc. and work their way through all the variables in a systematic way to solve the problem ▯ Concrete operation kids think that to know something is to know a fact, whereas formal operational kids know that knowledge is changeable – facts can change – scientific thinking is being able to accept this Critiques • Basic observations confirmed o But…. • Did Piaget overestimate attainment of Formal Ops? o One problem with his tasks was that the children that he tested them on had an education system that prepared them to do these things – they had been taught the operations o E.g. Martorano (1977) ▪ Pendulum task ▪ Other Formal Operations tasks ▪ Had children of varying ages (Gr. 6, 8, 10, & 12 – all in formal operations tasks) in the states do these tasks and she looked at whether age is predictive of solving the pendulum task • Results: o Not very high percentage of student in grade 6 & 8 can solve the task o Only about half of students in grade 10 & 12 can solve the task ▪ She looked at 10 other tasks: • Grade 6 or 8 – could only solve 2-3 of them • Grade 10 or 12 – could only solve 5 or 6 of them ▪ She argues that maybe it is the tasks that are causing this • Piaget later that said his research has found that most people cannot solve these things until age 15, he only thought it was early because the Swiss were able to do this due to their education o He said that being an expert in something may be important because it gives you motivation o He argued his own task was not a good measure because it was too specific to a certain type of expertise • Is the Pendulum Task a good measure of Formal Ops ability? o Interest -> Motivation o Idea being the more expert you are in something, the more interested/motivate you are to solve something, the better you will do (and the more you will look like you have operational thought) o Recruited university students to solve some systematic problem solving problems (variables that needed to be manipulated. o The subjects were either: ▪ Political Science major ▪ Physics major ▪ English major o They were given three problems: ▪ (1) Pendulum problem ▪ (2) political problem ▪ (3) Literacy problem o Results: ▪ On the pendulum problem the physic majors can solve it and the other two aren’t doing so well ▪ On the political problem the poli-sci’s can solve the problem but the other two are having problems ▪ The literary problem the English majors can solve it but the other two aren’t doing well o If you try to solve a problem in your own area of expertise you were able to do it better o Not being an expert in something can make you appear or feel stupid because you don’t have the tools to solve the problem • Maybe he did overestimate people’s problem solving abilities but what he didn’t control for was expertise ▯ Evaluation of Piaget’s
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