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Lovaye Kajiura

Bio 1A03 Exam Review Stories by Pallavi MathurNARRATIVES FOR BIO 1A03 EXAM REVIEW Not every concept is included These narrativesanalogies are based on selected portions of chapters 3 4 6 7 14 16 and 17I excluded whatever I thought was superobjective and straightforward or whatever was just impossible to write in a narrativelike style Regardless I hope what I have here helps Happy studyingChapter 3 Protein Structure Function and SignificanceEarly Origin of Life Experiments There once was a boy named Stanley Miller whose sole goal in life was to discover what atmospheric conditions in prehistoric times could have led to the origin of life In his famous SparkDischarge experiment Stanley played makebelieve and experimentally simulated atmospheric conditions on earth to see if the first stages of the Great Chemical Evolution could have occurred on ancient Earth Stanley knew that way back in the day the only chemical compounds worthy of being in the ancient atmosphere were methane ammonia and hydrogen He put these big kahunas as he liked to call them in a large flask to simulate the atmosphere He then connected this large flask to another with boiling water in it to simulate the ancient oceanand so water vapour circulated from the ocean to the atmosphere Stanley decided to use a condenser to cool the water on its way back down to the ocean flask and as vapour rained down it carried molecules from the big kahunas with it so that they dissolved in the ocean and also circulated through the system Stanley was pretty impressed with his new system but decided it needed something morea spark He wanted to see if a source of kinetic energy could have been responsible for the final push of the origin of life And so he added sparks to the atmosphere to simulate lightning as a source of kinetic energyHis results showed that in the samples of water there was formaldehyde hydrogen cyanide and other several complex organic compoundsincluding amino acids responsible for proteins Stanley was very proud of himself as he had discovered evidence of how the chemical evolution led to the synthesis of important monomers like amino acids And so according to Stanleys experiment there was evidence that the Big Kahunas gave rise to the organic compounds responsible for life todayall they needed was a little sparkSince then others have tried to use other explanations for the origin of life the Murchison meteorite and hydrothermal ventsbut young Stanley is truly a pioneer of these studiesProtein structure stuff heredont need narrative for that come on Protein FoldingIt has been said that polypeptide chains are like people They automatically fold in solution so the hydrophobic side chains group away from water and the hydrophilic side chains group towards itlike people who position themselves in life so that they hide from what they are not comfortable with and expose themselves to what they areBio 1A03 Exam Review Stories by Pallavi Mathur If proteins are denatured leading to their unfolding using heatpHchemicals they cannot function normallyjust like if you hurt someones feelings they wont be the same However once you remove whatever is denaturinghurting them the proteinspeople will go back to functioning normally Boy Meets World3 analogy for chaperones and prions o Folding is assisted by chaperones to help refold after denaturationo Cory Matthews can be looked at as a denatured protein and Mr Feeny his teacherneighbour the chaperone that helps to fold him into the person he grows up to beo Chaperonin is a cylinderlike chaperone and works by having the unfolded polypeptide enter the cylinder from one end The cap attaches to that end causing the cylinder to change in such a way that it creates a hydrophilic environment for the folding of the chain Then the cap comes off and the properly folded protein is released Similarly when Cory finds himself in a sticky situation he turns to Mr Feeny entering the cylinder Feeny then offers lifechanging advice the cap coming on conformational change which is so helpful that when Cory comes out of it he grows as a person and his problem is usually resolved like the last step o Unfortunately not all proteins can be folded properly leading to diseases like Mad Cow and Alzheimers Prions are misfolded versions of proteins that are infectious diseasecausing agentsthese are the bullies of the protein world the Harley Keiners of the BMWprotein world They cause normal proteins to also misfoldall it takes it contactlike you know a bullying beating up other kids and er misfolding them Examples Mad Cow sponge brain illness transferring by consuming prioninfected tissueHad to BURN carcasses to avoid spreading to denature prionsChapter 4 Nucleic Acids and the RNA World To help recognize nitrogenous bases In the world of nitrogenous bases there were only two types of peoplethe big guys nicknamed The DoubleRinged and the little guys The SingleRings The big guys ran the place believing themselves to be so superior based only on their size that they would refer to themselves as the Purinestoo pure for the rest of the world The purines were bigger than their smaller nitrogenously basic counterparts the Pyrimidines named as such because it was believed that on a pyramid these smaller bases were beneath the Purines It was a cruel worldbut somehow these bases still managed to find love in a hopeless place Read on to find out howWithin the Purines and Pyramidines there was animosity Of the Purines Guanine believed himself to be allmighty solely because he possessed a doublebonded Oxygen on his second ring as well as an amine group His purine partner Adenine was identical to him in every way on her second ring she possessed only one amine groupwhere Guaniness Oxygen was As such the two never got along and there seemed to be a constant power struggle between them
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