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QUICK STUDY NOTES - Chapter 50-55, How Humans Evolved 15-16

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James S Quinn

Chapter 51: Behaviour Proximate (How/mechanical) Causation – the immediate sequence of physiological effects that lead to the behaviour Ultimate (Why/evolutionary) Causation – the adaptive value or evolutionary origins of the observed behaviour Evidence for Genetic Component to Behaviour 1. Deprivation Experiments – prevents learning opportunities through isolation of subject 2. Selection Experiments – constant environment, breed individuals with extreme phenotypes, measure next gen phenotypes  change in mean behavioural phenotype = genetically based ( eg/ dull and bright mice solving a maze) 3. Crossing Genetic Strains * 4. Molecular Genetics Instinct – a behaviour pattern that reliably develops in individuals that receive adequate nutrition and that is given in functional form on its first performance Learning – a durable and usually adaptive change in animals in response to experience ( Eg/ Bird Call TypBegging (I), Alarm (I), Contact (L) 1. Habituation – repeated stimulate without appropriate feedback or unimportant stimuli 2. Imprinting – structured learning; critical periods, life-long learning; often involves mating 3. Associative Learning – association of stimuli a. Classical Conditioning – trained have same response to different stimuli b. Operant Conditioning (trial and error) 4. Insight Learning – correct behaviour on first try (by reasoning, not instinct) 5. Play – physiological/social/cognitive practice; developing skills 6. Fixed Action Patterns (FAP) – highly inflexible behaviour patters; stereotyped; triggered by sign stimulus; releaser signals from one individual to another  Predisposition for associative learning has been shaped by evolution (eg/ rat; tastenausea, soundpain, taste--/-->pain) Hamilton’s Rule – rB>C Direct Fitness + Indirect Fitness = Inclusive Fitness Reciprocal Altruism – long-term association (opportunity for reciprocation), individual recognition, detection and punishment for cheaters Chapter 15: Human Genetic Diversity Natural Selection for Larger Brain Size 1. Complex Foraging – benefits skillful hunting; food sharing increases sociality; specialization and risk reduction 2. Cooperative Breeding and Complex Social Interactions (associated social competition) 3. Cooking with Fire – digestion costs,  size and cost/energy investment of digestive system ( brain energy investment) Constraints on Brain Size Increase 1. Temperature Sensitivity of the Brain 2. High Metabolic Cost of the Brain Genetic Drift  acts on synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions Selection  acts on non-synonymous substitutions Genes with high ratio of non-syn to syn changes  indicates directional selection Skin Color/Race  Partly Genetic – 8818G allele of Agouti Signaling Protein (ASP) gene associated with darker skin color of Africans  Linked to environmental conditioned of place that people evolved (natural selection) Vitamin D 3 necessary for efficient use of dietary calcium  Shortage = weakened bones (Rickets Disease)  7-dehydrocholesterol found in keratinocytes of epidermis absorbs photons of UVB  Synthesis /Production facilitated by UVB exposure  Breakdown facilitated by UVB radiation (preventing Vitamin D intox3cation from excess vitamin) Melanin – protects against UC radiation; prevents direct (blocking) and indirect (scavenging reactive oxidase species) damage to DNA at vulnerable wavelengths  Absorbs and scatters UB=VB wavelengths that catalyze Vitamin D synthesis 3 Photoconversion of 7–dehydrocholesterol to pre-vitamin D in the skin is also adversely affected by; increasing age, clothing, 3 sunscreen Factors favoring dark skin – cooling through sweat; UV protection by melanin; UVA breaks down folic acid (adequate folate status necessary for proper DNA synthesis, repair and expression; folate deficiency plays negative role in reproductive and developmental processes) Lactose LTC*P – dominant gene; synthesize lactase and digest lactose as adults LTC*R – recessive (must be homozygous); unable to synthesize lactase and unable to digest lactose Milk proteins and lactose facilitates adsorption of calcium – if vitamin D deficient; lactose tolerance would be favored 1 Eg/ Beja People – nomadic people rely entirely on milk during 9-month dry season Lactose Malabsorption – 1) low latitude (north, difficult to keep2) high temperatures 3) high cattle disease Haplotype – sequence linked with mutation; when new mutation spreads it is surrounded by large chunk of same sequence; remains intact until recombination breaks linkage (takes ~10k years) Selective Sweep – selection favours entire block of DNA; block will appear in striking numbers Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA) – we evolved under environmental conditions that are not the same as today Specific Language Impairment (SLI) – dominant allele (single lo; difficulty learning to speak, small vocab, grammatical errors  FOXP2 Gene - SLI caused by dominant mutation in FOX2P gene o Found in SLI individuals o Damage to gene prevents normal development of some psychological language machinery o Codes for transcription factor belonging to family of genes important in regulating gene expression during development Chapter 16: Evolution and Human Behaviour Incest Avoidance  Breeding with kin increases homozygosity; increases sick of homozygous deleterious recessive disease; reduces fitness  Eg/ Tay-Sachs, PKU< Cystic Fibrosis – caused by homozygous deleterious recessive alleles Minor Marriages in Taiwan – fertility rate and divorce rate inversely proportional to age adopted Sexual Selection  Males limited by mate acquisition (typically) – cheap contribution (sperm); women must contribute more (costly eggs)  Intra-Sexual Selection – within sex competition for reproductive access (Male-male competition (access to mates) and ornamentation)  Anisogamy – morphologically dissimilar genes Parental and Mating Investment – investment increases offspring survival at a cost to parent’s ability to invest in other young Men Women Tend to desire more partners than women do Successful having kids later in life Fertility curve peaks earlier Favour traits that indicate youth (childbearing potential) Favour traits that indicate resource acquisition capabilities As males get older – prefer even larger age difference As females get older – preference remains constant (older) More concerned about sexual infidelity (must raise another child)Most concerned about emotional infidelity (need support) Culture – adaptation shared with common ancestors; allow exploitation of wide range of environments; information stored in brain acquired by imitation, teaching or other social learning capable of affecting behaviour or other phenotypic aspect  Spread through survival and persistence of memes in a form of cultural evolution  1) Social Facilitatio(activity indirectly increases chance that other will learn be2) Observational Learning Meme – unit of cultural info (believe of value) transmitted by imitation or learning; doesn’t always lead to increased fitness Chapter 50: Ecology Ecology – study, collection or knowledge of environment and how organisms interact with it Abiotic – comprised of non-living attributes Biotic – comprised of living attributes; living organisms that make up habitat in which organisms live Wetlands 1. Bogs – stagnant, acidic, lack nutrients, unproductive; carnivorous plants; Wainfleet and Quaking Bogs 2. Marshes – non-woody plants (no trees), productive Estuaries – river flows out of fresh water source into sea; productive marine environment; dropped off in the delta Biome – major grouping of plant and animal communities defined by a dominant vegetation type Evolutionary Adaptation (Long Term) genetically based changes due to natural selection favoring individual’s beneficial mutations  Eg/ Scorpion Fish living on coral, matches environment well; natural selection has favored genetic individuals who match background well Physiological Acclimatization (Medium Term) –metabolic or physiological adjustment within the cells or tissues of an organism in response to environmental stimuli that improves the ability of the organism to cope with its environment  Adjustment of fish in rising temperature in a body of water  tolerance to high temp increases over time Behavioural Response (Short Term)behaviours in response to the environment in broad terms  Lizards body temperature adjustment – early morning (cool) orient body to sun; burrow during heat or the escape from a predator 2 Organismal Ecology – individuals interact with each other and their physical environment; focus on behaviour Population Ecology – group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area at the same time; focus on changes in pop. Community Ecology – consists of the species that interact with each other within a particular area; focus on interactions Ecosystem Ecology – all of the organisms in a particular region along with non-living components; focus on nutrients and energy flow Chapter 52: Population Ecology Population – a group of conspecifics living in the same place and time Population Size 1. Count or estimate by aerial counts of large organisms, especially in migration or on breeding colonies, or in nesting colonies 2. Active nest colonies (colonial nesting birds) – can recognize adults and young (different colors) and breeding pairs based on eggs in nests 3. Quadrat survey estimates (plants) 4. Point-quarter survey estimates (plants – trees) – plus sign tossed in forest; each quarter go to nearest tree that fits requirement, identify species, find density of species in forest relative to other species Mark Recapture Population Estimates – assumes non-migrating and mixing population  1) Capture and mark a number of individuals 2) Release marked animals, allow to mix 3) Recapture a number of individuals st nd nd  m /2 =2n /N1 (n1=# caught and marked in 1 capture1 m =# marked individuals caught in 2 c2pture, n =# of total individuals caught in 2 capture, N = total population size) General Growth Equation – assume no immigration or emigration; only due to birth and death  dN/dt = (B-D) x N (average birth/death rate/individual*year)  dN/dt = rN r = per capita growth rate  Intrinsic Rate of Increase (r max) under ideal conditions; highest possible growth rate; unique to species  If conditions remain constant (r doesn’t change) – population experiences Exponential Growth  Limits to Growth o Density Dependent Factors – competition (food and shelter), limited sunlight due to shading, predation o Density Independent Factors – natural disasters, birth/death rate, weather patterns,  Carrying Capacity (K) – max. number of individuals in population that environment can support over a long period of time Logistic Growth Rate  dN/dt = r 0* [(K-N)/K] r0= rate of growth when population is small (close to 0) – r max in textbook Discrete Growth -  N t N λ0 t N tpopulation size, N 0initial population size, λ=finite rate of increase  λ = Rx0g R0=net reproductive rate, g=generation time  R 0Σ l x x i = 0 Continuous Growth- growth not tied to particular season  λ = er relationship between finite rate of increase (pop growth rate over discrete time inand instantaneous rate of increase  N t N e0 rt Life History – how an organism allocates resources to growth, reproduction and activities or structures related to survival; an organism’s life (or time) pattern of growth differentiation storage and reproduction  Fitness Trade-off – high fecundity (grow quickly, produce manvs. high survivorship (grow slowly, produce few) o Fecundity – number of offspring produced per reproductive episode o Maturity – age at first preproduction  Parity – number of episodes of reproduction o Semelparity– single parity, single reproductive episode; all energy saved up for one “big bang” o Iteroparity – reproduce at several different events over the course of life K Selected Species – just enough environments to keep population size constant – must be good at copulating (eg/ gorilla)  Stable, density dependent, large organism, low fecundity, high quality of young, high parental investment, late reproduction, long lived/iteroparous r Selected Species – do not encounter density-dependent effects; focus on fecundity (eg/ oyster spew gametes)  Unstable, density independent, small organism, high fecundity, low quality of young, littler parental investment, early reproduction, short lived/semelparous Humans appear as r selected – but evolutionary are K selected  Curve about assemblage of many populations – human population size; counting whole world, live in many populations  Carrying Capacity does not necessarily stay the same – environment changes, agriculture (live in large populat, technology (more productivit, fossil fuel(take advantage of energy) Population Viability Analysis (PVA) – model that estimates the likelihood that a population will avoid extinction for a given time period  Eg/ Lead beater possum; dead trees as nest sites; assess effect of logging these habitats on population; estimate survival and fecundity; high migration, low migration results  reducing size and number of old-growth fragments would reduce possibility for migration and lead to rapid population declines Population Cycles – regular fluctuations in size that some animal populations exhibit 3  Eg/ Hare and Lynx 1) Hare controls Lynx population – hare use up all food when population reaches high density and starve – cause lynx to starve 2) Lynx controls Hare population – lynx population reach high density in response to high hare density, lynx eat hare; depletes supply of prey – lynx starve  Ex/ Hare populations limited by predation and f
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