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Bio notes Chapter 1 EXAM.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1P03
Professor
Lovaye Kajiura
Semester
Fall

Description
Bio notes Chapter 1 What is life? Biology-Bio=Life Logy=study of Why is Biology Important?  Helps you understand body functions  Allows you to be an informed science citizen  Career opportunities  Enriches appreciation of the Earth and its inhabitants Similar characteristics shared by all living things  Organisms acquire and use materials and energy  Organism actively maintain organized complexity  Organisms perceive and respond to stimuli  Organism grow  Organism produce  Organisms have the collective capacity to evolve Non- living things may possess some of these characteristics Crystal--- grow Computers---use and acquire energy But only living things can do it all Organisms acquire and use materials and energy  Obtain material that make up their body, such as minerals, water and other simple chemical building blocks from; air, water ,soil from bodies of other organism  Life neither destroys matter or creates  Materials are continuously exchanged and recycled among organisms and surroundings  Energy is required to move and to construct the complex molecules that make up an organisms body. Organisms actively maintain Organized Complexity  Organisms tend to disintegrate into chaos unless energy is used to maintain it  Organisms must use energy to maintain themselves  Ex. Membrane pumps some chemicals in and others out  Ex. People and mammals use energy to keep internal organs a t a warm constant temp that allows the proper reactions to occur in their cells  Organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions Organisms perceive and respond to stimuli  To obtain energy and nutrients and to stay alive, organism must perceive and respond to their environments.  Animals use specialized cells to detect light, temperature, sound ,gravity, touch, chemicals and many other stimuli.  Ex. Low blood sugar(internal stimulus) detected by brain mouth waters at the smell of food(external stimulus)  Plants, fungi and single celled organism use very different mechanisms that are equally effective for their needs. Organisms Grow  Growth requires organisms to obtain material and energy from outside world.  Single celled organism such as bacteria grow to about double their original size, copy their genetic material and divide in half to reproduce  Animals and plants use a similar process to produce more cells within their bodies repeating until growth stops.  Individual cells also contribute by increasing in size  Muscles & Fat cells in animals  Food storage cells in plants Organisms Reproduce  Organisms reproduce in a variety of ways  End result is always: New versions of the parent organisms  Offspring inherit the instructions for producing and maintain their particular forms of life  Instruction copied in every cell are carried in the unique structure of the hereditary Molecule Deoxyribonucleic Acid(DNA) AKA THE BLUEPRINT FOR LIFE. Organisms have the collective capacity to evolve  Evolution: The process where modern organism descend from earlier and different forms of life.  Over the course of generations, Changes in DNA are inevitable, resulting in evolution Why is
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