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cell and cell processes.docx

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Laura Parker

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Cells and Cell Processes 1. Characteristics of Life a. Order b. Respond to stimuli c. Exchange energy and materials with the environment d. Made of cells e. Homeostasis f. Grow and develop g. Reproduce h. Evolve 2. Cell Theory says three main things about cells: a. All living things are made up of one or more cells. b. Cells are the basic unit of life. c. All cells come from other cells. 3. All cells are organized into levels of structure a. Organisms - the entire living thing b. Organs and organ systems - a collection of tissues working together c. Tissues - a collection of similar cells all working together to do a job d. Cells - the smallest living unit of a living thing e. Organelles - small parts of cells which each have a special job f. Molecules - tiny pieces which make up all the parts of the cell 4. The cell membrane is the outer boundary of all cells. a. It contains special molecules called phospholipids which keep water from passing through. These molecules are made mostly of fat. b. It controls what comes into and goes out of the cell. c. It also has proteins stuck in it d. It is very important for homeostasis. 5. Cells are made of various parts (organelles) which each have a specific function. a. Cell wall i. Found in plants, bacteria, and fungi ii. Not living like the cell membrane iii. because it is not living it requires pores for things to get in and out. iv. made of cellulose. Cellulose is what we call fiber and is an important part of our diet v. protects the plant cell and gives it strength and structure vi. because it is so strong the plant does not need a skeleton b. Cytosol i. all the liquid which fills the cell ii. cytosol is mostly water iii. it is important because all of the chemical reactions in the cell take place in water. c. Nucleus i. controls the activities of the cell ii. contains the DNA (genetic information) iii. DNA is in the form of chromosomes iv. surrounded by the nuclear membrane which is similar to the cell membrane v. the nuclear membrane controls what goes in and out of the nucleus d. Mitochondria i. release energy from the food we eat ii. break down glucose and other molecules for energy e. Ribosome i. make protein for the cell ii. most cells have 1000s of ribosomes iii. some proteins stay inside the cell, some proteins leave the cell f. ER i. ER is used to move substances from one place in the cell to another ii. it is like a complex system of tunnels or passageways iii. some ER has ribosomes attached and some does not g. Lysosome i. lysosome break apart worn out cell parts ii. like a little recycling center iii. the parts are then reused to make new cell parts h. Cilia and flagella i. some cells have cilia (like tiny hairs) that are use for movement ii. some cells have a flagellum (like a tail) used for movement i. Chloroplast i. contain a green pigment called chlorophyll ii. this pigment absorbs light from the sun iii. the chloroplasts make glucose (the main food) for the plant iv. this process is called photosynthesis j. Vacuole i. the vacuole is used for storing things inside the cell ii. plant cells usually have very large vacuoles that
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