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Bio 2A03 Exam Review Questions.pdf

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Graham R.Scott

Lecture 1  List the hierarchical organization of the body starting from cells ending with organism.  How many distinct cells are in the human body?  Define muscle cells.  Define nerve cells.  Define connective tissue cells.  Define epithelial cells. Lecture 2  Total body water is _____ L or _____ % body wt.  Intracellular H2O = _____ L, Interstitial H2O = _____ L, and Plasma H2O = _____ L.  Intracellular H2O is known as the _____ _____ _____ and accounts for approximately _____ of total body water.  Interstitial and Plasma H2O combined are known as the _____ _____ _____ and accounts for approximately _____ of total body water.  _____ _____ is rapidly transported by the circulation and mixes between blood and tissues by diffusion through capillary walls. It bathes tissues and makes up the _____ _____ of the body. Proper cellular function depends on tight control of _____ components.  What was the work of Claude Bernard?  What was the work of Walter Cannon? In addition, he stated that homeostasis is “The maintenance of static or constant conditions in the _____ _____”  What is a negative feedback? Provide some examples.  Reflexes are a key component of _____ _____. What are they strictly defined as? Some are _____ or _____. Most are _____ by learning.  What is a reflex arc?  Restoration of set point _____ _____ of exact and a persistent error signal keeps feedback loop in operation. Hence the term “_____” stable in the definition of homeostasis.  Define afferent pathway.  Define efferent pathway.  Intercellular communication: Cell to cell communication is important for homeostasis. It is performed by _____ _____ _____.  Three types: _____, _____ and _____.  Define hormones. Provide examples.  Define neurotransmitters. Provide examples.  Define autocrine/paracrine agents. Provide examples.  Distinguish between autocrine and paracrine.  What are the two functions of membranes?  Define tight junctions.  Extracellular membranes of adjacent cells joined. Transport pathway between cells (extracellular) blocked. Most substances must therefore go _____. Forms a _____ _____. Example includes most epithelial cells.  Define desmosomes. Where are they found?  Define gap junctions. Protein channels AKA _____ link cytosols of adjacent cells. What is the size of the channels so that there is a limitation as to what can pass? Concentrated in _____ _____ at _____ ______ and important for passage of _____ signals. Lecture 3  Proteins and protein function central to physiology. What are the two things protein activity is controlled by?  Define allosteric modulation.  Define covalent modulation.  Protein kinases add PO4-2 from ATP to proteins. PO4-2 can be removed by _____ _____. Kinases can be controlled allosterically demonstrating that the 2 systems can _____. Both allosteric and covalent modification affect the binding _____ of the enzyme for the substrate (ligand) or binding site can be turned off or on.  Define cell metabolism. What are the two categories?  Virtually every chemical reaction in the body is catalyzed by _____.  Often need _____ (trace metals such as Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) or _____ derived from vitamins (e.g. NAD+, FAD+, and coenzyme A and B vitamins).  Uncatalyzed they occur at too slow a rate (years in some cases) due to high _____ _____.  Enzymes decrease the activation energy and increase reaction rates by a factor of _____ to _____.  Enzyme kinetics: What is the general chemical equation? Which step is most important?  What do the rates of enzyme reactions depend upon (3 things)?  Receptors show characteristics very similar to enzymes. What does the magnitude of a cell’s response depend upon (3 things)?  The quantitative description of enzyme reaction rates to [S] constans Vmax and Km occurs by the Michaelis-Menten equation. What is the equation? Define each term.  If affinity _____ then the number of ES complexes increase at any given [S] or the same number of [ES] at lower [S] (i.e. Km _____). In other words at high affinities 1/2Vmax occurs at a _____ [S].  Define metabolic pathways.  Define end product inhibition.  Specific reaction steps may be regulated to control _____ through the entire pathway. Classically, these are called “_____ _____” stems but modern control theory does not use this term.  What is control theory? Lecture 4  Metabolic pathways – ATP synthesis: One of the major roles of metabolic pathways is to convert the energy in food (stored as fuel) to power _____ _____.  List methods of ATP production.  List methods of consuming ATP.  ATP can be produced by two types of phosphorylation. What are they? When do they occur?  List the functions of the mitochondria.  Mitochondria: Provide characteristics of the 1) outer membrane, 2) inner membrane, and 3) matrix.  Transport mechanisms: Transport across _____ is important for physiological function. Membrane provides a _____ _____ to control movement in and out of cells.  What are two transport mechanisms?  Diffusion is the movement of molecules from one location to another due to _____ _____ _____. Movement is from a region of _____ to a region of _____ concentration until there is _____ _____.  Define flux.  Net flux: flux 1 – flux 2 and is in the direction of _____ concentration.  If flux 1 > flux 2: Net flux from compartment with _____ concentration to that with lower concentration. Gradient for diffusion causes _____ movement of solute.  If flux 1 = flux 2: Net flux is zero when the system reaches _____ _____. No gradient for diffusion exists.  Net flux depends upon what 4 factors?  Diffusion: times (t) are proportional to the distance (x)^2 over which diffusion occurs. Therefore, it is only effective over _____ _____.  Single cells are small enough (10um-20um) for diffusive exchange but large animals need a _____ _____ for long-distance transport.  Flux across the lipid bilayer is described by Fick’s equation. List the equation and define all variables.  Kp: is a measure of the ease of passage of a substance across a phospholipid membrane. It is a function of what three things?  O2, CO2 and fatty acids and steroid hormones are nonpolar (high Kp) and diffuse _____. Most organic molecules are charged (polar) or ionized (ionized phosphate groups) and diffuse _____ or not at all (low Kp).  Diffusion thru transmembrane protein channels: Important for the movement of _____ _____ which normally do not diffuse across lipid bilayers.  Na+, K+, Cl- and Ca+ pass thru the membrane with the aid of _____ transmembrane protein channels.  Both _____ and _____ are important for the movement of ions. Also called the _____ _____. The membrane potential is always _____ inside a resting cell.  Separation of charge across a membrane = _____  List properties of electrical forces. Electrical driving force on cations = _____ _____. Electrical driving force on anions = _____ _____.  Magnitude of electrical driving force is dependent on what two factors?  Electrochemical driving forces: Direction of ion movement depends on balance between chemical and electrical driving forces. If the two forces are equal, the electrochemical force is _____.  If chemical > electrical = _____ _____  If chemical < electrical = _____ _____  Ek = _____ _____ for K+ reflects the chemical driving force. Different from membrane potential. Lecture 5  Define channel protein.  Selective for _____ _____ _____ due to size and the charged and polar surface of the protein subunits of the channels. Electrically _____ or _____ particular ions. Opening of pore can be regulated (e.g. membrane potential regulates _____-_____ channels).  Define facilitated diffusion.  Explain the glucose flux diagram.  Define facilitated diffusion.  Facilitated diffusion differs from simple diffusion in that it involves selective _____ _____ for large polar or charged molecules. Mediated transport can also become _____ and reach maximal flux. It binds to substrates and undergoes _____ _____.  Define primary active transport.  Covalent modulation of transporter (via _____ of ATP) increases the affinity of the solute _____ _____. Define covalent modulation.  Dephosphorylation occurs by conformational change of the _____ and decreases the _____ of the binding site. Define dephosphorylation. Provide examples.  Intracellular K+ = _____. Extracellular K+ = _____. Inward movement of K+ is uphill and requires _____ transport. Intracellular Na+ = _____. Extracellular Na+ = _____. Inward movement of Na+ is uphill and requires _____ transport. Exists in almost _____ cell.  Membranes are “_____” to ions. Ion pumping to maintain proper gradients produces _____ as a byproduct. Up to _____% heat production in some cases.  Endotherms have _____ membranes than ectotherms. This results in a metabolic rate that is _____ times that of a similar sized ectotherm. Which has leakier membrane – mouse or frog?  Define secondary active transport.  SAT uses [ion] gradient across membrane as _____ _____. As ion moves down its concentration gradient it provides energy for the _____ _____ of another solute. Usually Na+ binding changes the _____ of the transporter for solute via _____ _____. Primary active transport is needed to _____ the Na+ gradient that provides energy for secondary transport.  Define cotransport/symport.  Define countertransport/anti-transport. Lecture 6  Define signal transduction.  Define osmosis.  Flux can be increased by the presence of _____ = protein channels.  H2O concentration depends on the _____ of dissolved particles.  Total [solute] in solution determines _____ (colligative properties).  Define colligative properties.  1 mole of dissolved particles = _____ _____ _____  1 M of glucose in solution = _____ _____, but 1 M of NaCl = _____ _____ since it ionizes in sol’n to Na+ and Cl-.  The higher osmolarity of a solution the _____ the H2O concentration.  Osmosis is in the direction of _____ osmolarity or _____ H2O concentration.  Cells are very _____ to water and _____ to many solutes.  Define isotonic. What happens to the cell?  Define hypertonic. What happens to the cell?  Define hypotonic. What happens to the cell?  Compare this to osmolarity: Relates the osmolarity of a solution relative to normal extracellular fluid without regard to penentrating or nonpenetrating nature of solutes. A solution can be _____ at 300 mOsm but _____ due to penentrating solutes.  Signal transduction pathways detect intercellular messengers and convert them into a biologically meaningful response. There are 4 features…  Define specificity.  Define amplification.  Define desensitization/adaptation.  Define integration.  What is feedback?  Receptors: What 3 factors does the magnitude of a cell’s response depend upon?  Receptors show characteristics very similar to _____. They can become _____ with messenger.  An increase in the number of receptors _____ the % bound with messenger.  A change in the affinity for messenger can increase the number of bound receptors at the same _____ concentration. Or 50% of the receptors are bound at a _____ messenger concentration.  Receptors can be intracellular: bind to _____ messengers. This alters synthesis of a specific _____. Acts as _____ factors.  Lipophilic messengers can cross over the _____ _____ and get into cell.  Receptors can be located in the _____ or in the _____. Provide example of a nuclear receptor.  Receptors can be membrane bound: How many main types?  Define channel-linked. (e.g. binding opens ion channel). Called _____-_____ channels. This is an example of a “_____” channel as it just relies on binding of messenger. Channel also acts as the _____. Allows channel to _____ quickly and briefly.  Enzyme-linked: Ligand-binding domain on _____ _____ and an enzyme active site on the _____ side. Binding activates tyrosine kinase activity which phosphorylates a protein on tyrosine.  Define tyrosine kinase.  G-protein linked: Activate membrane proteins called _____ and begin a signalling cascade. G-proteins can be stimulatory (Gs) or inhibitory (Gi).  Define G-protein.  G-protein linked receptors regulate a _____ _____. (i.e they can open or close a “_____” ion channel. The cannel does not act as a receptor. They also often activate an _____. (i.e. adenylate cyclase to produce cAMP).  Second messengers: IntERcellular chemical messengers which reaches the cell surface is called the _____ messenger. The intracellular messenger produced by the binding of the first messenger is called the _____ messenger. SMs act as _____ _____ from the plasma membrane to the biochemical machinery _____ the cell.  List the important 2 messengers.  Review the response of the cell for glycogen breakdown in liver cells. Lecture 7  Why do we have a circulatory system?  The CS is a fast connection system = rapidly circulating fluids between surfaces that equilibrate _____ _____ and _____ _____ _____ organisms.  What is the primary role of the CS? What is the secondary role?  What does the CS consist of?  The CS is composed of _____ circuits.  Outline the pulmonary circulation.  Outline the systemic circulation.  Both have an _____ (blood away from heart) and a _____ component (returns blood to heart). The bloodflow is equal in each at approximately _____ L/min.  The plasma is composed of 6 things: List all 6, and provide properties and examples.  ISF and plasma values are close to each other except that proteins are _____ in the plasma.  Capillary wall is very _____ to H2O and most plasma components except _____.  Define hematocrit.  In a microhematocrit tube, plasma is the _____ dense and is _____% of blood. The buffy coat is composed of _____ and _____ and is the _____ dense and is _____% of blood. Erythrocytes are the _____ dense and is _____ % of blood.  Total blood volume = _____ L. Plasma = _____ L, and RBCs = _____ L.  What is the most abundant cell type in blood?  What is the major function of RBCs?  In mammals, RBCs do not contain a _____ or other _____. They contain large amounts of _____ (85% of protein content) for carrying O2 (and some CO2). The enzyme _____ _____ is important for CO2 transport.  _____ of cells are important for rapid O2 and CO2 diffusion. Biconcave disk = thicker on the edges than in the middle. This provides a high _____ _____ to _____ ratio and gives the greatest flexibility.  There are _____ Hb molecules per RBC. Hb is a _____ with a molecular weight of _____, composed of 4 similar units.  Each unit consists of a “_____” ring structure which binds and a polypeptide chain (_____) which binds _____, _____, and _____, etc.  Hb exhibits the property of _____ _____ = “binding at one site on a molecule affects binding at a second site, usually by changing the shape of the molecule.”  Regulation of erythrocyte production: Blood components are under tight reflex (_____) control.  RBC product occurs primarily in the _____ _____. RBCs have a relatively short life span of _____ days. Approximately _____% of RBCs are recycled per day and the breakdown occurs in the _____ and _____. The product of breakdown is _____ which is _____ in colour.  Production (_____) is primarily regulated by the hormone _____, secreted by specialized cells in the _____. Increased release triggered by _____ O2 delivery to the _____.  Outline the regulation of erythrocyte production.  What are the ways to increase RBCs?  Define polycythemia.  Define anemia.  The buffy coat is comprised of leukocytes and blood platelets. Provide properties and examples for 1) leucosytes and 2) blood platelets.  What is the equation for the fundamental law of circulation? Define all variables. Lecture 8  deltaP = _____ - _____. Provide the rest of the equation.  MAP is the overall pressure driving _____ into tissues.  Systemic = _____ mmHg, Pulmonary = _____ mmHg  Q = m L/min for each circuit, thus R must be _____ in the pulmonary circuit.  Pulmonary circuit has _____ pressure and _____ resistance. What are the three purposes to this?  Systemic circuit has _____ pressure and _____ resistance. What are the three purposes to this?  What is Poiseuille’s Law? Define all variables.  Resistance vessels (arterioles) are capable of _____ (muscle contraction) and _____ (stretching of vessel) changes in radius.  What occurs when there’s addition of Rs in series? In parallel?  Most major resistances are arranged in _____. Portal circulation is an example of resistance in _____. _____ networks are small vessels arranged in parallel. Even though r is small per _____, total resistance of all capillaries is not huge.  Define total peripheral resistance (TPR).  Resistance across a network of blood vessels depends on _____ of all vessels.  _____ through network varies with resistance.  Vasoconstriction in network  increase resistance  _____ flow.  Vasodilation in network  decrease resistance  _____ flow.  What is the formula for cardiac output? Lecture 9  Vascular system: Complete the table. Part Inner radius Properties Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venuoles Veins  Which three parts are associated with microcirculation?  All parts of the circulatory system have _____ (inner layer), all but capillaries have _____ _____ and connective tissue (outer layer).  Arteries are muscular and highly elastic because they have high _____/_____ in connective tissue.  Define compliance. What is the formula for compliance?  Moderate compliance to smooth out _____ fluctuations in heart. Large chances in _____ with small changes in _____ make arteries _____ reservoirs. Large changes in volume with small changes in _____ make veins _____ reservoirs. The higher the compliance the greater a vessel can be stretched.  Which has higher compliance – arteries or veins?  Arteries as a pressure reservoir: Stores pressure which is then released between _____ _____ (diastole). Only _____ of the stroke volume leaves the arteries at this time, and the rest leave when the arterial wall recoils. Recoil occurs during diastole and this maintains _____ constant.  Pressure peaks during ventricular ejection (systole) = systolic pressure (SP), lowest is diastolic pressure btw _____. SP – DP = _____ _____ (_____).  PP depends on stroke volume, speed of injection and compliance of arteries. Low compliance = high _____. Provide an example.  What are the two roles of arterioles?  Arterioles are the major site of _____ in cardiovascular system. Adjust resistnce of vessels going to tissues by adjusting _____ both passively (stretch) and actively (nerves, hormones, etc). Are well _____ and contain _____ _____ that contracts (vasoconstriction) or relaxes (vasodilates). Always some intrinsic tone (_____ _____) plus tonic constriction due to basal firing of SNS.  Control of vascular smooth muscle: What are some local/intrinsic controls? What are some extrinsic controls?  What is active hyperemia? Where does it occur? What does it affect?  What is reactive hyperemia? What is a myogenic response?  Extrinsic controls: Provide properties for SNS. PSNS. Hormones.  In most vascular beds, _____ outnumber _____ (except in skeletal muscle). Epinephrine has a greater affinity for _____ receptors.  At rest, cardiac output is 5L/min. How is this 5 L divided – complete table?  During exercise, cardiac output is 25L/min. How is this 25 L divided – complete table? At rest During exercise GI tract Kidneys Skeletal Muscle Brain Skin Others  High concentration of _____ - binds to both alpha and beta2. _____ in skeletal and cardiac muscle vascular beds. _____ TPR. _____ in most other vascular beds. Maintain/increase TPR  maintain _____ _____. Dominant effect usually _____.  List all vasoconstrictor hormones.  List all vasodilator hormones. Lecture 10  Metarterioles and precapillary sphincters: Passive and active changes in _____ and _____. Both contain rings of _____ _____, no _____, only affected by _____ _____ (intrinsic control).  Metarterioles act as bypass channels or shunts from _____ to _____. When _____ is low in these vessels, blood may bypass capillary bed.  Capillaries: Thin walled tube of _____ _____. Permeate most tissues and cells generally within _____ mm from a capillary. Small in radius but networks have large _____ _____, approximately 10-40 billion capillaries for a combined surface area of _____ m^2.  This is important for two things. What are they?  Increased SA leads to _____ blood velocity. This is important because it maximizes time for _____ nutrients and wastes.  Provide properties of continuous capillaries.  Provide properties of fenestrated/sinusoidal capillaries.  Bulk flow: Capillary membranes freely permeable to _____ and _____ _____.  Net flow of fluid from _____ to _____ (IF) = filtration _____ _____ to _____ = absorption.  The role of bulk flow is to maintain fluid balance between plasma and _____ = _____.  What are the 4 main forces determining direction of flow (Starling-landis forces)? List whether each force favours absorption or filtration.  Net fluid flow across capillaries depends on the difference in filtration pressure and absorption pressures. Provide the formula for NFP.  Filtration = _____ L/day  Absorption = _____ L/day  Filtration usually exceeds absorption with _____ L entering IF (= total plasma volume). This fluid is returned to the circulatory system by the _____ system. Lymph flow = _____L/day. If it is not returned, what is the result?  What is the term used for extreme case of failure of lymphatic system to clear fluid?  Due to low pressures there is normally no filtration in _____ capillaries.  Venuoles and veins: Return blood back to the heart (via _____ _____) and act as a _____ _____ (50-85% of blood volume – vasoconstriction or vasodilation).  Think-walled and highly _____ vessels to accommodate large volumes for small changes in pressure “_____ _____”  Necessary force provided by _____ between peripheral veins (10-15 mmHg) and right atrium (0 mmHg). Adequate becase of low _____ of veins.  Veins have one-way _____ that ensure movement is towards heart.  What does venous pressure depend upon?  Venous return has a major effect of volume ejected by the heart = _____ _____  Skeletal muscle pump: muscle contraction increases _____ pressure. Lower valve closes and upper valve opens – reverse when muscle _____. Lecture 11 and 12  What are the three layers the heart is composed of?  Cardiac muscle is comprised of _____ types of cells. Name them.  Contractile cells: majority of cells (_____%), have properties of skeletal (striated – actin and myosin) and smooth muscle (gap junctions).  All cardiac cells interconnected (as a _____) through gap junctions, protein channels linking cytosols, small in diameter.  Concentrated at _____ _____ which contain connections that hold the cells tightly together and resists mechanical stress (_____).  Pacemaker cells: determine the _____ the heart beats. Where are the two locations that they are located?  SA has a higher intrinsic rate (_____ impulses/min) than the AV (_____ impulses/min).  Conduction fibers (Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers): Rapidly conduct (_____ m/s) AP generated by the pacemaker cells. Cell-cell rate through gap junctions is _____ m/s.  The heart consists of 2 synctiums (_____ and _____) connected by conduction fibers.  Autorhythmic cells: Complete the table. Location Firing Rate at Rest (APs/min) SA Node AV Node Bundle of His Purkinje Fibers  _____ depolarizing cells drive all other cells. (They are linked together by _____ _____ = pacemaker = sets pace for entire heart.)  Regulation of heart rate (both rate and force are regulated): Heart affected by changes in rates of AP generated by pacemaker. Pacemakers get direct input by _____ _____ _____.  SNS and PSNS have _____ effects. SNS has more connections to _____ (more effects on _____ than PSNS).  Cardiac nerve: acts on SA and AV nodes via _____ adrenergic receptors to _____ heart rate.  Vegus nerve (acetylcholine) acts on SA and AV nodes via _____ muscarinic receptors to _____ heart rate. Predominant factor in setting resting heart rate of _____ bpm (rate without any inputs = _____ bpm)  Hormones (e.g. Epi) can affect heart rate. Increases heart rate via same mechanisms as _____.  Molecular mechanism (neuro- and hormonal): Receptor binding alters _____ _____ and changes rate of _____ _____. Provide example.  How does temperature affect heart rate? Lecture 13  List the sequential events that trigger a heartbeat.  Volume ejected by ventricles with each heartbeat = _____ _____.  What is the formula for SV?  EDV (ventricle filled) = _____ ml  ESV (ventricle emptied) = _____ ml  SV (volume ejected) = _____ ml  If EDV _____ then SV increases. If ESV _____ then SV decreases.  Ejection fraction = _____/_____. What is the percent of ejection fraction at rest? What % of blood is still left in the heart?  What is the Frank-Starling law? What is its most important function?  Review graph.  What are the 6 factors that affect venous return and EDV?  Regulation of stroke volume via ESV. Define afterload. Define ventricular contractility.  Molecular mechanism: Usually involves a change in the amount of Ca2+ _____ per AP into (contractile) cells.  What are three factors that affect contractility and ESV? What do they affect?  Review summary of cardiovascular changes during mild exercise.  Despite all these complex changes, the _____ did not change very much. This reflects the homeostatic role of the _____ _____.  The role of the baroreceptors (sensory receptor neuron) is to keep systemic MAP as close to _____ mmHg as possible.  The arterial baroreceptors continually monitor the systemic MAP and inform the _____ _____ _____ in the medulla of the brain.  Baroreceptor reflexes are the most important _____ _____ regulator of MAP (seconds to minutes).  Baroreceptors = _____ _____  List two types of arterial baroreceptors. Where are they locate?  The level of MAP is continually “_____” as AP frequency sent by the arterial baroreceptors. This is “_____” at a higher level in hypertension. Review diagram.  What occurs following a haemorrhage? What’s the result? Lecture 14  Efferent pathways of the baroreceptor reflex: sympathetic nerve goes to pacemaker cells to _____ heart rate, and to heart muscles to _____ the rate of contraction.  Baroreceptor reflexes also facilitate short term _____ _____ of blood plasma volume by _____ of fluid from interstitial space and lymph.  Long-term regulation of MAP happens at the _____.  List all of the things the kidneys regulate.  The urinary system has 4 components. List all 4.  All smooth muscles have _____ _____.  The urinary bladder consists of three components, list them. Which one can be control consciously (SNS control)? Which one cannot be controlled consciously (Somatic NS control)?  Complete the table: Active or Inactive Filling Urinating PSNS SNS Somatic NS  List key structures within the kidney.  What is a nephron?  Each renal pyramid contains _____ to _____ nephrons and _____ to _____ pyramids per kidney, each with separate branches of renal artery and renal vein. 1-1.5 million nephrons per kidney x 2 = 2-3 million nephrons total in your waste filtration system. Lots of filtration, similar to arteries. Small, but large _____ _____ when combined with others.  By the time the urine leaves the nephron, it is fully _____ (processed so that it only contains _____, and _____ have been removed and sent for processing.  We can understand urine formation by understanding the function of a single _____.  Glomerular filtration: What is the function of the peritubular capillary bed? This system uses _____ to help filter stuff in and out. Lecture 15  Nephron (blood side): “_____ _____” = essentially two capillary beds in series, joined by an arteriole.  What is the function of the afferent arteriole?  What is the function of the glomerulus?  What is the function of the efferent arteriole?  What is the function of the pertitubular capillary bed and vasa recta?  What are the three basic processes by which urine is formed?  Nephron (urine/tubule side): Tubule is essentially a single winding _____ along which the urine flows and gets progressively _____.  What is the function of the Bowman’s capsule?  What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule?  PCT: _____% of Na+, Cl- and H2O reabsorption occur here (a _____ _____).  PCT: _____ to _____% of everything else is reabsorbed here (a _____ _____).  PCT: >_____% of secretion occurs here for most substances.  What is the function of the Loop of Henle?  LoH: _____% of Na+, Cl-, and H2O reabsorption occurs here (a _____ _____).  The distal convoluted tubule is the _____ largest part.  What is the function of the common collecting duct?  Together, the DCT and CCD account for approximately _____% of the Na+, Cl- and H2O reabsorption (a _____ _____).  Variability occurs because there are sites of _____ actions controlling reabsorption and secretion.  Key hormones are _____ and _____ (antidiuretic hormone = vasopressin), also _____ _____ _____ and _____ _____.  The DCT and CCD are major sites of _____ secretion.  A simplified model of nephron function: Outline the three basic exchange processes.  Glomerular filtration: a volume equivalent to _____% of the plasma flowing through the glomeriular capillaries is filtered, forming the _____ _____ collected into the Bowman’s capsule.  This “_____” contains a representative sample of everything in plasma except _____ (and _____-bound substances).  M.W. cutoff is approximately _____, and the smallest plasma protein is albumen at _____.  GFR = _____ L/day.  Entire plasma volume of the body is converted to primary urine every _____ minutes. _____% of the filtrate is subsequently reabsorbed in the tubule.  A fraction (_____%) of everything is filtered. Valuable substances are selectively _____ while wastes, foreign substances are _____ _____. Therefore, the kidney can excrete virtually any waste or foreign substance.  Plasma flow = _____ ml/min, GFR = _____ ml/min, and filtration fraction = _____/_____ = 20%.  180L filtered per day but only _____ L of urine excreted. (Thus, a lot of reabsorption).  Define fenestration.  Provide properties of filtration barrier. Lecture 16  Glomerular filtration: Starling-landis forces involved in glomerular filtration. What is the formula for net filtration pressure (NFP)? Define all variables.  What is the result of constricting afferent arteriole?  What is the result of constricting efferent arteriole?  Balance of afferent and efferent resistance is very important in controlling proper equilibrium of _____ and _____ and balancing GFR. Level of MAP is also very important in controlling GFR.  Tubular secretion: Relatively few substances (approximately _____) which are often present in great excess are actively transported into the urine from the blood. What are some examples? Where does this mainly occur? (Except for K+)  Tubular reabsorption: All “_____” substances (a very large number) are reabsorbed from the urine into the blood by a combination of _____ and _____ mechanisms. Provide examples.  This occurs mainly in _____ _____, but variable reabsorption of H2O, Na+, Cl- and urea in DCT and CCD determines final urine volume and composition. Because of this active transport work, _____ can account for _____% of BMR of whole body.  What substances are reabsorbed in the proximal tubule? Loop of Henle (descending limb)? Loop of Henle (ascending limb)? Distal tubule? Collecting duct?  What substances are secreted in the proximal tubule? Loop of Henle (descending limb)? Loop of Henle (ascending limb)? Distal tubule? Collecting duct?  What are the three patterns for renal handling? Provide examples of actual molecules for each.  Complete the table: Substance Filtration Rate Reabsorption Rate Percent of filtered load reabsorbed Water 99.2 Glucose 100 Urea 50 Na+ 99.4 K+ 86.1 Ca2+ 98.1 Cl- 99.2 HCO3- >99.9  Reabsorption barrier: Active transport of Na+ and _____ co-transport.  Plasma membrane only a barrier for _____. Tubule epithelia is the _____ barrier for re-absorption. Proximal tubules have more _____ than DCT or CCD.  Tight junctions between epithelia cells restrict paracellular transport (i.e. forces diffusion _____ the cells.)  Are the tight junctions tighter in proximal tubules or DCT/CCD? Why?  Proximal tubules also have higher _____ content due to many active transport processes.  The same barriers must be crossed for _____.  What is the formula for excretion?  Analysts of renal function: What is the formula for excretion rate?  What is clearance rate? What is the formula for clearance rate?  If X is a substance that is totally cleared from the plasma (eg. PAH), then the clearance rate is total _____ _____ flow rate. See example. Lecture 17  If X is
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