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Cell Biology Notes for Test 1.docx
Cell Biology Notes for Test 1.docx

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McMaster University
Kim Dej

Lecture 1 Eukaryotic Cells  Smallest functional unit  First noticed in mid 1600s - Royal Society of London - Robert Hook- instrument curator - Had decent microscopes (glass magnifies) - Looked at thin slices of cork: compartments of cork were called cellulae (little room) - Origin of cell  mid 1800s - micron- mitochondria, nucleus, etc - Lavenhook - Saw little men in cells – Did people come from cells or spontaneous? Cell Theory 1) All organisms consist of 1 or more cells 2) Cell is the basic unit of structure 3) All cells arise from pre-existing cells (basic unit of reproduction)  1930s - Electron microscope (0.4nm) - Most cells are micrometers - 1 micrometer= 1000 nm .001 micrometers= 1 nm  Surface area to volume ratio is why cells are small - Lower ratio = bigger object - We want a small object (large SA:vol) - Need oxygen and CO2 by diffusion - Less distance to transport to middle of cell - Neurons have very high SA:vol - Villae increase SA:vol What are cells made of?  6 elements: C H O N P S  Certain combos are most prevalent: H2O (70%)  H2O is universal solvent - Polar- allows it to hydrogen bond (with itself) (H is shared between 2 e-) OHO - Other charged molecules can bind (proteins, carbs) - Molecules arrange around H20 - Charged molecules are hydrophilic - Uncharged molecules are hydrophobic - High mp and bp  Carbon - Cell is carbon based unit - Silicon is almost as good as carbon (has 3 bonds instead of 4) - Carbon has no size limit (long chains) - Small (4 bonds)  Other common combos: CH3, OH, COOH, NH2  Bioactive component of compounds Lecture 2 Small Organic Molecules  Carbon based  Less than 1000 daltons in size  Found within cytoplasm  1000 different types - Most in 4 families: simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides  Make macromolecules Simple Sugars  Monosaccharides (CH20)n n = 3-8 carbons  Most common is n-acetyl glucosamine (found in chitin)  Contains atleast one OH group  Contains either an aldehyde or ketone group  Serve as an energy source  Link together to form polysaccharides - Oligosaccharide- short polymers that bind to lipids (and make a glycolipid) or protein (make a glycoprotein)  Polysaccharides- glycogen, starches (more than 15 monos combined)  Monosaccharides can form higher order polysaccharides such as cellulose (structural function)  30 common monosaccharides Fatty Acids  Linear arranged group of C with a COOH group at one end and a methyl group at the other end  Saturated (with H) or unsaturated (double bonds)  Methyl end is hydrophobic and COOH end is hydrophilic  Directly metabolized/catabolized for energy * most energy dense molecule*  3 OH groups attach to glycerol (3 C sugar alcohol) and makes a triglycerol/triglyceride (fat) and can be stored  Phospholipid- diglyceride with P and choline o primary structural lipid in membranes o phosphatidyl choline (choline is polar) Amino Acids  see drawing  20  Amino end is N-terminus, COOH is C terminus  Energy *most expensive to metabolize*  Link together to make peptides (proteins) Nucleotides  Nitrogen containing rings that make up nitrogenous bases  Nitrogenous base is atta
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