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Lipid Metabolism I What are some functions of lipidsComponents of biomembranes Hormones Energy source as they conserve more energy than carbohydrates more reducedWhat are bile acids List 6 examples of bile acidsBile acids bile salts help solubilise fat globules They are ampiphatic detergent like cholesterol derivatives Their action is to emulsify fats and increase digestion of lipids1 Cholic acid 2 Glycocholic acid 3 Taurocholic acid 4 Chenodeoxycholic acid 5 Glycochenodeoxycholic acid 6 Taurachenodeoxycholic acid What form micellesBile acids and nonpolar products of lipid digestionAre tricylglycerols water soluble What digestive enzymes catalyze hydrolysis of triacylglycerolsNo triacylglycerols are not water soluble while digestive enzymes are Triacylclycerols are digested at lipidwater interfaces Pancreative lipase phospholipase A2 catalyze hydrolysis of triacylclycerols to monoand diacylglycerolsHow are lipids transported via the bloodstreamLipids are transported via the bloodstream by lipoproteins As lipids are poorly soluble in aqueous solution they must be transported with a protein complex This complex is taken up by cells in a receptormediated processWhat is the structure of lipoproteins Outside phospholipids cholesterol apolipoprotein B100 ampiphilicInside triacylglycerols cholesteryl esters hydrophobicWhat are the five classes of lipoproteinsChylomicronstransport dietary triacylglycerols and cholesterol from intestines to tissues to liverVLDL very low density lipoprotein IDL intermediate density lipoprotein LDL low density lipoprotein transport intestinally produced triacylglycerols and cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissuesDescribe lipoprotein transport Products of lipid digestion are absorbed by small intestine and converted to triacylglycerols Then these are packaged to chylomicrons with cholesterol and released to the bloodstream via lacteals lymphatic vessels Lipoprotein lipase hydrolyzes triacylglycerols from chylomicrons leaving remnants Chylomicron remnants are delivered to the liver and they are converted to VLDL Lipoprotein lipase degrades VLDL to IDL then LDL HDL removes cholesterol from bloodstream and delivers it to the liverDescribe endocytosis of LDLIn lack of dietary cholesterol cells synthesize it Obtain it through receptormediated endocytosis of LDL LDL is recognized by a specific LDL receptors on the cell surface with a protein clathrin LDL LDL receptors and clathrin are engulfed by the cell to form a coated vesicle with a polyhedral scaffold of clathrin Receptor mediated endocytosis is a mechanism by which cells take up macromoleculesWhere are triacylglycerols stored in your body Adipocytes Specialized in synthesis and storage of triacylglycerolsDescribe plant oils and their function Plant triacylglycerols liquify at lower temperatures than animal triacylglycerols Function as metabolic fuel reserves In castor beans proportion of oil to carbos and protein is 60 Lipids are stored as oil bodies of 1 mM in diameter A single seed may contain over 1000 oil bodies Lipid Metabolism II What hormone mobilizes triacylglycerols and from which cells in your body Hormone sensitive lipase from adipocytesWhere are free fatty acids released to and to what protein do they bind Is this protein water soluble Released to the blood and bind to albumin This is a water soluble protein What must occur before fatty acids are oxidized
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