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Midterm 2 practice questions

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McMaster University
Ben Bolker

Bio 3SS3 Version Q Formulas ▯ ‘ = p ▯ p ▯ :::p x 1 2 x▯1 P ▯x ▯ ‘x x▯ = 1 ▯ SAD(x) / ‘ ▯ ▯x x 1. The value of p1in a life table A. Is not a▯ected by the survival between birth and the ▯rst census B. Must be greater than 1 C. Is often zero or small because organisms take time to reach maturity D. Is not a▯ected by life-history tradeo▯s E. Must be greater than 1 in order for the population to increase 2. The annual fecundity of older organisms A. Must be greater than 1 in order for the population to increase B. Must be between 0 and 1 C. Is always larger than the fecundity of younger organisms D. Is always smaller than the fecundity of younger organisms E. Is generally larger for organisms that continue to grow throughout their lives 3. In order to calculate the probability of surviving up from age 1 to age x one needs to A. Add the survival probabilities from age 1 to x B. Incorporate the probability of surviving from birth to age 1 C. Multiply the mortality probabilities from age 1 to x D. Multiply the survival probabilities from age 1 to x E. Calculate ▯ for the population 4. Which of the following is true of the stable age distribution of an increasing population? A. It matches the ‘xcurve exactly B. It is more top-heavy (more individuals in older age classes) than thex‘ curve C. It is more bottom-heavy (more individuals in younger age classes) than the ‘ curve x D. Insu▯cient information to answer E. A population can’t be increasing if it has a stable age distribution Page 2 Bio 3SS3 Version Q 5. In which of the following circumstances can an older age class in a population sample have more individuals than a younger age class? A. This is impossible: older age classes must always be smaller than younger age classes B. If there has been a temporary decrease in fecundity in the recent past C. If there has been a temporary decrease in juvenile survivorship in the recent past D. In a stable population E. In a declining population 6. Which of the following cases would be the most appropriate situation for using a structured, unregulated population model? A. An invading population of annual plants B. An invading population of perennial plants C. A population of bacteria in stable phase D. A forest where strong competition for light occurs E. An endangered population of annual plants 7. Which of the following populations would most likely require a structured population model? A. Bacteria B. Annual plants C. Organisms that are all approximately the same size D. Blue whales E. Dandelions 8. Which of the following di▯ers between stage-structured and age-structured population models? A. Stage-structured models allow individuals to remain in the same pop- ulation stage for several years B. Age-structured models allow for population regulation, stage-structured models don’t C. Stage-structured models allow for population regulation, age-structured models don’t D. Age-structured models allow individuals to shrink rather than growing E. Age-structured models don’t allow fecundity to increase with age Page 3 Bio 3SS3 Version Q 9. Which of the following is an organism for which we expect fecundity to continually increase as individuals age? A. Humans B. Bacteria C. Cod D. Sparrows E. Elephants 10. What causes adaptation by natural selection? A. Dispersal B. Di▯erential survival and reproduction of randomly generated variants C. Directed (i.e. non-random) mutational processes D. Genetic drift in small populations E. Stochastic variation of the environment over time 11. Which of the following is not a life-history tradeo▯? A. Reproduction vs longevity B. Many small/cheap o▯spring vs few large/expensive o▯spring C. Rapid maturation vs large ▯nal size D. O▯spring that grow quickly vs o▯spring that disperse well E. High R vs low R 12. Which trait would be most characteristic of a K-strategist? A. Rapid maturation B. Good dispersal C. Production of many inexpensive o▯spring D. Short lifespan E.
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