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Pre Tutorial Tests.docx

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Biology
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BIOLOGY 1M03
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Jon Stone

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Pre Tutorial Quiz- Data Collection and PTC Tasting Question 1 1 / 1 point All of the following statements are true about individuals who can taste PTC except: Question options: a) They tend to avoid many bitter substances b) They may find certain vegetables aversive c) The may be less likely to smoke d) They must have two copies of the "taster" allele e) Most people are able to taste PTC Question 2 1 / 1 point Which of the following statements is true about the ability to taste PTC? Question options: a) The ability to taste PTC is associated with other observable phenotypic traits b) PTC tasting is heritable, but it is not part of an individual's phenotype c) Individuals only need to possess one copy of the "taster" allele to be able to detect PTC d) Individuals who possess one copy of the "non-taster" allele cannot taste PTC e) Both a and c are correct question set Question 3 0 / 1 point You are interested in whether dimples are a dominant or recessive trait. Which of the following statements would support the hypothesis that dimples must be dominant? Question options: a) When both parents have dimples, all of those parents' children must also have dimples b) Genetic analysis reveals that an individual requires only one copy of the "dimples" allele in order to have dimples c) In some families, all of the males have dimples but none of the females d) Dimples may be present in children whose parents do not have dimples e) The siblings of an individual with dimples also has dimples Question 4 0 / 1 point Your research team suspects that lactose intolerance is a recessive trait. Which of the following observations would contradict your theory? Question options: a) Two lactose intolerant parents always have children who are lactose intolerant b) Genetic analysis shows that individuals must possess two copies of the "lactose intolerance gene" to show the lactose intolerant phenotype c) Two parents, both lactose intolerant, have a child who is not lactose intolerant d) Two parents, one able to tolerate lactose and the other intolerant, have a child who is able to tolerate lactose e) Two parents, one able to tolerate lactose and the other intolerant, have a child who is not able to tolerate lactose question set Question 5 1 / 1 point You decide to perform a chi square test to determine whether, after rolling a die multiple times, the six possible outcomes of the rolls occur with an even distribution. You roll the die 60 times and record the number of occurrences for the six sides: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 10. Using these values, you calculate the chi square statistic to be 1.00. You have determined the critical value to be 11.070 These results indicate: Question options: a) The die is skewed and null hypothesis is correct b) The die is honest and the null hypothesis is correct c) The die is skewed and the null hypothesis is incorrect d) The die is honest and the null hypothesis is incorrect Question 6 1 / 1 point You have set up an experiment where you are measuring the pollination of flowers by hummingbirds. You suspect that flower coloration influences the birds' choice of which flower to visit. You select a study area with equal numbers of the four types of flower coloration; flowers may be all red, red and yellow, all yellow, or white. You decide to measure the number of humming bird visits to each colour of flower, and use the chi square test to determine whether your hypothesis is correct. Using the chi-square distribution chart, what would the critical value be for your chi square statistic, (assume the desired statistical significance is 0.05)? Question options: a) 3.841 b) 7.815 c) 2.366 d) 5.991 e) 1.386 Question 7 0 / 1 point Many statistical tests are used in biology. Based on the explanation of when and why we use the chi- square test from the introduction in your student package, which of the following would be the best example of an instance where we would use chi square? Question options: a) Two populations of drosophila (fruit flies) are monitored for population growth; you wish to determine if one population has become significantly larger than the other b) You want to measure whether one fish species consumes more food over a 24-hour period than another species c) A bear has four possible sites to visit in search of food; you wish to determine whether the bear's visits to each site are evenly distributed d) You have six experimental mice and wish to test if their average mass differs from a control group of mice e) You have measured male mating frequencies in a particular bird population and would like to measure whether brightly-coloured males mate more than dull-coloured males Question 8 1 / 1 point You have set up an experiment where you are measuring the pollination of flowers by hummingbirds. You suspect that flower coloration influences the birds' choice of which flower to visit. You select a study area with equal numbers of the three types of flower coloration; flowers may be all red, red and yellow, or all yellow. You decide to measure the number of humming bird visits to each colour of flower, and use the chi square test to determine whether your hypothesis is correct. Which of the following best states your null hypothesis? Question options: a) the birds will show a preference for one type of flower colour, relative to the others b) the data will not indicate whether or not the hypothesis is correct c) the birds will visit each flower-colour type exactly the same number of times d) the birds' flower visits will be evenly distributed among the three flower-colour types e) birds will not visit non-preferred flowers Question 9 1 / 1 point You have set up an experiment where you are measuring the pollination of flowers by hummingbirds. You suspect that flower coloration influences the birds' choice of which flower to visit. You select a study area with equal numbers of the four types of flower coloration; flowers may be all red, mostly red with some yellow, and mostly yellow with some red, or all yellow. You decide to measure the number of humming bird visits to each colour of flower, and use the chi square test to determine whether your hypothesis is correct. What is the value for the degrees of freedom in your experiment? Question options: 0 1 2 3 Not enough information is provided Question 10 1 / 1 point You decide to perform a chi square test to determine whether, after rolling a die multiple times, the six possible outcomes of the rolls occur with an even distribution. You roll the die 60 times and record the number of occurrences for the six sides: 5, 6, 15, 7, 13, 14. Using these values, you calculate the chi square statistic to be 10.00. You have determined the critical value to be 11.070 Which of the following statements are supported by your results: Question options: a) The die is unfair because the critical value exceeds the chi square statistic b) The die is fair because the critical value exceeds the chi square statistic c) The die is unfair because the critical value is less than the chi square statistic d) The die is fair because the chi square statistic exceeds the critical value e) The die is fair because 5+6+15+7+13+14 =60 Pre-tutorial Quiz- Hardy-Weinberg Question 1 1 / 1 point A large island population birds are in a state of equilibrium. 396 have red bellies and 557 have tan bellies. Assume that red is recessive. Calculate the allele frequencies for "p" and "q", respectively, assuming p represents the dominant allele: Question options: 0.645; 0.355 0.355; 0.645 0.416; 0.584 0.396; 0.557 0.584; 0.416 View Feedback Question 2 1 / 1 point A large island population of birds are in a state of equilibrium. 396 have red bellies and 557 have tan bellies. Assume that red is recessive. Calculate the expected genotype frequencies for "Aa" individuals, assuming p represents the dominant allele: Question options: 0.458 0.416 0.126 0.229 0.645 View Feedback Question 3 1 / 1 point A large island population of birds are in a state of equilibrium. 396 have red bellies and 557 have tan bellies. Assume that red is recessive. Calculate the expected genotype frequencies for "AA" individuals, assuming p represents the dominant allele: Question options: 0.458 0.416 0.126 0.645 0.229 View Feedback Question 4 1 / 1 point A large island population birds are in a state of equilibrium. 396 have red bellies and 557 have tan bellies. Assume that red is recessive. Calculate the number of heterozygous individuals that you would predict to be in this population, assuming p represents the dominant allele: Question options: 218 436 557 521 458 View Feedback Question 5 1 / 1 point Within a stable population of lizards, the color brown (B) is dominant over the color green (b). And, 40% of all lizards are green. Given this population is in equilibrium, calculate the percentage of lizards in the population that are heterozygous: Question options: 0.60 0.37 0.27 0.17 0.47 View Feedback Question 6 1 / 1 point Within a stable population of lizards, the color brown (B) is dominant over the color green (b). And, 40% of all lizards are green Given this population is in equilibrium, calculate the frequency of homozygous dominant individuals: Question options: 0.60 0.47 0.14 0.27 0.77 View Feedback question set Question 7 1 / 1 point Cystic fibrosis is a recessive condition that affects about 1 in 2,500 babies in the Caucasian population of the United States. Assuming this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, calculate the frequency of the dominant allele in the population: Question options: 0. 96 0.04 0.096 0.02 0.98 View Feedback question set Question 8 1 / 1 point You wish to conduct research on the population genetics of the local squirrel population and plan to base your calculations on the assumption that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Which of the following observations would suggest that the squirrel gene pool is in fact not in equilibrium? Question options: Squirrels appear to mate randomly The population is very large and isolated from other squirrel populations Squirrels tend to migrate to other, far off territories to mate The squirrel genome is not known to incur any mutations Squirrels do not appear to have differential survival or reproductive rates question set Question 9 1 / 1 point You have sampled a population which you know to be in equilibrium. You determine that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Calculate the frequency of the "a" allele: Question options: 0.36 0.60 0.13 0.06 0.64 View Feedback Question 10 1 / 1 point You have sampled a population which you know to be in equilibrium. You determine that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Calculate the frequency of the "A" allele: Question options: 0.32 0.40 0.20 0.64 0.16 Pre Tutorial Quiz- Phylogenetic Trees Question 1 1 / 1 point Using the phylogenetic tree shown here, which of the following species represent sister taxa? Question options: a) A and D b) A, B and C, D c) A, B, C and D d) answer a and answer b e) answer a and answer c Question 2 1 / 1 point From the phylogenetic tree shown above, which of the following species represent a monophyletic group? Question options: a) C and D b) A and B c) A, B, C, and D d) All of the above. e) answer a and answer b only Question 3 1 / 1 point If you were using cladistic analysis to build a phylogenetic tree for cats, which of the following would be the best choice for an outgroup? Question options: a) lion b) domestic cat c) wolf d) leopard e) tiger Question 4 1 / 1 point What recent scientific development has resulted in a significant increase in the quality of phylogenetic trees? Question options: a) The discovery of a large number of fossils from less than 20 million years ago, representing extinct species. b) The discovery of bacterial life on an asteroid from Mars. c) The development of techniques to sequence DNA genomes. d) The discovery of many transitional species that are ancestral to modern humans. e) All of the above have been important in improving the quality of phylogenetic trees. Question 5 1 / 1 point Referring to the phylogenetic tree above, which two modern organisms are most closely related? Question options: a) 1 and 4 b) 2 and 5 c) 1 and 5 d) 2 and 4 e) 3 and 4 Question 6 1 / 1 point Which of the following demonstrates the correct application of the principle of parsimony? Question options: a) An evolutionary biologist determines animals possessing vertebrae likely evolved from several different ancestors because vertebrate animals are very different from one another today. b) Birds and bats are different in many important ways, but both possess wings and are likely sister taxa. c) Modern humans and other hominids, including H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and A. afarensis are placed within a single monophyletic group because all species walk on two legs. d) The emergence of a trait, antibiotic resistance, in Staphylococcus aureus bacteria is placed at several points on a phylogenetic tree. e) More than one of the above. Question 7 1 / 1 point The diagram shown above (top left corner with the hominid images) shows the phylogenetic relationship of human ancestors and relatives. All of the other phylogenetic trees shown are equivalent to this one except: Question options: a) A b) B c) C d) D e) E Question Set Question 8 1 / 1 point In your textbook, the case of whale evolution is described, using the appearance of a pulley-shaped astralagus bone as a marker for the divergence of the group called Artiodactyla. Whales do not possess this trait, but all Artiodactyla do. Two scenarios are considered: 1. The pulley-shaped astralagus evolved after ancestral whales diverged from the common ancestor of the artiodactyls, OR Whales are artiodactyls, closely related to hippos, who eventually lost the pulley-shaped astralagus. If scenario 1 is correct, which of the following statements is true? Question options: a) Whales and hippos are sister taxa. b) Whales are an outgroup in this example. c) The pulley-shaped astralagus is a basal trait for whales. d) Whales probably share many other traits with hippos. e) The correct evolutionary relationship is not the most parsimonious explanation of the evolution of the astralagus bone. Question Set Question 9 1 / 1 point Identify the part of the tree that is circled in the image above. Question options: a) Branch b) Node c) Origin d) Sister Taxa e) Monophyletic Group question set Question 10 1 / 1 point Creating a tree based on the reconstructing relationships from derived traits would be an example of using the _______ approach for estimating phylogenies Question options: a) Homoplasic b) Morphologic c) Convergent d) Cladistic e) Phenetic Pre Tutorial Quiz- Evolution Question 1 1 / 1 point Molecular clocks are based on analysing: Question options: a) Silent mutations b) Missense mutations c) Nonsense mutations d) Frameshift mutations Question 2 1 / 1 point Silent mutations: Question options: a) Change the structure of the protein b) Change the function of the protein c) Change the genotype and the phenotype d) Change the genotype but not the phenotype e) All of the above Question 3 1 / 1 point From who is mtDNA inherited: a) Mother b) Father c) 50% from mother, 50% from father d) 75% from mother, 25% from father due to the difference in the size of the X chromosome versus the Y chromosome Question 4 1 / 1 point Molecu
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