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BIOLOGY 1M03 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Natural Selection, Evolution, Mutation


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Ben Evans
Study Guide
Final

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BIOLOGY 1M03

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Causation of behavior
Proximate The immediate sequence of physiological effects that lead to the
behaviour.
oHOW?
oBasically answers how, how did the behavior happen, example as a kid, as I would
approach a pond, the todpods would swim away from me, proximate explanation is
that their sensory sensation senses the vibration and they get brain signal and they
swim away
Ultimate – The adaptive value or evolutionary origins of the observed behaviour
oWHY?
o why? Why did the animal behave that way, tedpods sensed terrestrial predator,
trying to protect themselves. Evolutionary implication? Adaptive value?
Basis of behavior  environment/genetic
Learned ----- continuum ---- genetic
Epigenetic
Always a combination of genetic and environmental impact/effects. Learning from
environment in some way. Learned from environmental or genetic from DNA, it is an
artificial dichotomy; in reality we realize is that this is in fact a continuum. Behavior
fall somewhere along line, where there is some genetic influence, influence may be
a signal of neuron structure that may facilitate a certain type of understanding of a
fact, or it could be learnt, alternating of learn. Epigenetic effects short lived, can
last through generations, DNA methylation turning on and off genes,
Evidence for a genetic component of behavior
Need to understand that there is an genetic element, if no genetic element, we
wouldn’t be talking about evolution of behavior
1) Deprivation experiments
Prevent learning opportunities through isolation of subject
Idea is that is to deprive an individual early in life and then test it later. No
possibilities of learning, but exhibit element of behaviors.
Example squirrel, kidnap when in next, grow up alone, and then put them in some
sort of container of soil and nuts, they will pick up that these, carry them, dig a hole
and bury them. They didn’t learn them, must’ve had genetic wiring.
Spiders spinning webs those spiders when they are born, they spin a little bit of
webbing, they will fly away, arrived with genetic
Kangaroo rat naïve tot his, first exposure of snake to rat, these animals will sense
a snake, in the process of sensing it, they will move up like jump up adaptive way
to have this behavior, not a behavior you learn, it comes naturally because this is a
one time learning and you are dead. What sorts of ways should these type of
behaviors be acquired – best way from deprivation is by genetic means
Fixed action pattern
Pattern that appears, essentially complete, and is played out to completion once
activated by a simple sensory cue
First performed without training
Stereotyped and predictable
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Sensory cue
oSign Stimulus external stimulus that triggers FAP. Can be a sign stimulus or
external. Example of a greylag goose that has a sing stimulation of egg, you take
goose, take the egg out, no egg, go over and wiggle head along pushing egg
around. If you steal the egg, the animal will go through this motion trying to push
egg back in
oReleaser - stimulus that signals form one individual to another, example 3 spine
stickleback, in sexual condition, males become red and defend a nest, attracting a
females, challenging males, signal causes response, turns aggressive, can use any
models will stimulate a response near a sexual,
These are instincts
Reflect a pattern that appears complete, and completed once a activated by
simple sensory cute
Steps
Individuals in a species – all do same thing (stereotype)
2) Selection Experiments
A hold environmental constant, B measure phenotype, C breed individuals
with externe phenotype, Dmeasure phenotype in next generation and Eback to
c
Experiments where you are keeping all individuals in a identical environmental
conditions, keeping them from any type of learning. But going through a pattern
where you select certain traits, (processed food a lot of corn, corn is in form of
corn syrup corn has been selection for corn syrup, test corns, most syrup
fertilize with last times, use those individuals – keep selecting those with most sugar
to see to up). Measure phenotype sugar or ability to negotiate a maze. Breed
individuals with extreme if you want most sugar, take richest kernels vice versa.
Measure phenotype in next generation and you go back to C,
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